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OBJECTIVES To validate the clinical efficacy and practical feasibility of massively parallel maternal plasma DNA sequencing to screen for fetal trisomy 21 among high risk pregnancies clinically indicated for amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. DESIGN Diagnostic accuracy validated against full karyotyping, using prospectively collected or archived(More)
BACKGROUND The potential use of plasma and serum for molecular diagnosis has generated interest. Tumour DNA has been found in 'the plasma and serum of cancer patients, and molecular analysis has been done on this material. We investigated the equivalent condition in pregnancy-that is, whether fetal DNA is present in maternal plasma and serum. METHODS We(More)
Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due to the lack of data from a large sample set. We studied 392(More)
BACKGROUND Hypermethylation of the RASSF1A [Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1A] gene is frequently observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the analysis of circulating hypermethylated RASSF1A for detecting HCC and assessing its prognosis. METHODS In module 1, we studied 63 pairs of HCC patients and age- and sex-matched(More)
BACKGROUND There is a need for development of molecular markers of cancer that can be used clinically for the detection, prognostication, and monitoring of cancer. Recently, there has been much interest in the potential use of nucleic acid markers in plasma and serum for this purpose. APPROACH We reviewed published literature up to 2002 on the topic, with(More)
Fully automated immunoassay formats are available for quantification of urinary albumin in large numbers of samples. However, most of these methods are impractical or expensive. The criteria for point-of-care testing include affordable cost, a disposable device, and minimum main-tenance/technical expertise required to perform tests (15). The sample should(More)
BACKGROUND The discovery of circulating fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, have been intensely investigated recently because of their important regulatory role in gene expression. Because nucleic acids of placental origin are released into(More)
The recent interest in nucleic acids in plasma and serum has opened up numerous new areas of investigation and new possibilities for molecular diagnosis. In oncology, tumor-derived genetic changes, epigenetic alterations, and viral nucleic acids have been found in the plasma/serum of cancer patients. These findings have important implications for the(More)
The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a Y-specific repeat sequence in peripheral blood DNA samples from 19 pregnant women who had a gestational age of 9 to 41 weeks. Y-specific sequences were amplified from all 12 women who bore a male fetus but in none of 7 women who bore a female fetus. With stringent precautions against contamination, this(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, much interest has developed in the potential use of plasma DNA as a diagnostic and monitoring tool. We hypothesized that plasma DNA is increased in patients with trauma and may be prognostic in such patients. METHODS We studied 84 patients who had sustained an acute blunt traumatic injury. We measured plasma DNA by a real-time(More)