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OBJECTIVES To validate the clinical efficacy and practical feasibility of massively parallel maternal plasma DNA sequencing to screen for fetal trisomy 21 among high risk pregnancies clinically indicated for amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. DESIGN Diagnostic accuracy validated against full karyotyping, using prospectively collected or archived(More)
We have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay to measure the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum. Our results show that fetal DNA is present in high concentrations in maternal plasma, reaching a mean of 25.4 genome equivalents/ml (range 3.3-69. 4) in early pregnancy and 292.2 genome equivalents/ml (range 76. 9-769) in late(More)
PURPOSE AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Glutathione S-transferases, enzymes that defend cells against damage mediated by oxidant and electrophilic carcinogens, may be critical determinants of cancer pathogenesis. In this report, we assess the role of epigenetic silencing of the GSTP1 gene, a gene encoding the pi-class glutathione S-transferase, in the pathogenesis(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal plasma mRNA encoded by the PLAC4 gene (placenta-specific 4), which is transcribed from chromosome 21 in placental cells, is a potential marker for the noninvasive assessment of chromosome 21 dosage in the fetus. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of 2 trisomy 21-screening approaches that use maternal plasma PLAC4(More)
BACKGROUND The discovery of circulating fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, have been intensely investigated recently because of their important regulatory role in gene expression. Because nucleic acids of placental origin are released into(More)
BACKGROUND Despite current interest in the biology and diagnostic applications of cell-free DNA in plasma and serum, the cellular origin of this DNA is poorly understood. We used a sex-mismatched bone marrow transplantation model to study the relative contribution of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells to circulating DNA. METHODS We studied 22(More)
BACKGROUND The discovery of fetal DNA in maternal plasma has opened up an approach for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Despite the rapid expansion in clinical applications, the molecular characteristics of plasma DNA in pregnant women remain unclear. METHODS We investigated the size distribution of plasma DNA in 34 nonpregnant women and 31 pregnant women,(More)
BACKGROUND The precise measurement of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma facilitates noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies and other applications. We tested the hypothesis that microfluidics digital PCR, in which individual fetal-DNA molecules are counted, could enhance the precision of measuring circulating fetal DNA. (More)
Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due to the lack of data from a large sample set. We studied 392(More)
BACKGROUND There is much recent interest in the biologic and diagnostic implication of cell-free non-host DNA in the plasma and serum of human subjects. To determine if quantitative abnormalities of circulating non-host DNA may be associated with certain pathologic processes, we used circulating fetal DNA in preeclampsia as a model system. METHODS We(More)