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We have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay to measure the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum. Our results show that fetal DNA is present in high concentrations in maternal plasma, reaching a mean of 25.4 genome equivalents/ml (range 3.3-69. 4) in early pregnancy and 292.2 genome equivalents/ml (range 76. 9-769) in late(More)
OBJECTIVES To validate the clinical efficacy and practical feasibility of massively parallel maternal plasma DNA sequencing to screen for fetal trisomy 21 among high risk pregnancies clinically indicated for amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. DESIGN Diagnostic accuracy validated against full karyotyping, using prospectively collected or archived(More)
PURPOSE AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Glutathione S-transferases, enzymes that defend cells against damage mediated by oxidant and electrophilic carcinogens, may be critical determinants of cancer pathogenesis. In this report, we assess the role of epigenetic silencing of the GSTP1 gene, a gene encoding the pi-class glutathione S-transferase, in the pathogenesis(More)
Cell-free fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. It consists of short DNA fragments among primarily maternally derived DNA fragments. We sequenced a maternal plasma DNA sample at up to 65-fold genomic coverage. We showed that the entire fetal and maternal genomes were represented in maternal plasma at a constant relative proportion. Plasma(More)
BACKGROUND There is much recent interest in the biologic and diagnostic implication of cell-free non-host DNA in the plasma and serum of human subjects. To determine if quantitative abnormalities of circulating non-host DNA may be associated with certain pathologic processes, we used circulating fetal DNA in preeclampsia as a model system. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND The recent discovery of the presence of circulating cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma opens up new prenatal diagnostic applications and provides new avenues for clinical investigation. It is of research and potential diagnostic interest to determine whether fetal trisomy 21 may be associated with quantitative abnormalities of circulating(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal plasma mRNA encoded by the PLAC4 gene (placenta-specific 4), which is transcribed from chromosome 21 in placental cells, is a potential marker for the noninvasive assessment of chromosome 21 dosage in the fetus. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of 2 trisomy 21-screening approaches that use maternal plasma PLAC4(More)
Chromosomal aneuploidy is the major reason why couples opt for prenatal diagnosis. Current methods for definitive diagnosis rely on invasive procedures, such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and are associated with a risk of fetal miscarriage. Fetal DNA has been found in maternal plasma but exists as a minor fraction among a high background(More)
BACKGROUND The discovery of circulating fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, have been intensely investigated recently because of their important regulatory role in gene expression. Because nucleic acids of placental origin are released into(More)
Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due to the lack of data from a large sample set. We studied 392(More)