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Measurements of the isotopic composition of stratospheric water by the ATMOS instrument are used to infer the convective history of stratospheric air. The average water vapor entering the stratosphere is found to be highly depleted of deuterium, with 6Dw of670 + 80 (67% deuterium loss). Model calculations predict, however, that under conditions of(More)
Spacecraft and groundbased observations of the atmospheres of solar system objects have provided a definition of their present characteristics and have yielded clues about their past history. Table 1 presents a summary of our current knowledge of the atmospheric properties of all the planets, except Pluto, and several satellites. The masses of these(More)
The atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit on the NASA Aqua mission, in combination with the precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), are employed to study the vertical moist thermodynamic structure and spatial–temporal evolution of the(More)
[1] We present the first simultaneousmeasurements ofHDO and H2O in the tropical upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) as derived from infrared solar absorption spectra acquired by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment. We find, surprisingly, that the observed HDO/H2O ratio does not decrease with altitude in this region(More)
[1] We investigate the mass dependent isotopic fractionation mechanisms, based on photolytic destruction and reaction with O(D), to explain the N/N and O/O fractionation of stratospheric N2O and reconcile laboratory experiments with atmospheric observations. The Caltech/JPL two-dimensional (2-D) model is utilized for detailed studies of N2O and its(More)
We have measured the dayside spectrum of HD 189733b between 1.5 and 2.5 μm using the NICMOS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. The emergent spectrum contains significant modulation, which we attribute to the presence of molecular bands seen in absorption. We find that water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are needed to explain(More)
Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral region 7 to 14 microm and contribute to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. The concentrations of these trace gases may undergo substantial changes because of man's activities. Extensive use of chemical(More)
[1] Space-based measurements of reflected sunlight in the near-infrared (NIR) region promise to yield accurate and precise observations of the global distribution of atmospheric CO2. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a future NASA mission, which will use this technique to measure the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) with the(More)
[1] The recently constructed gridded Merged Ozone Data (MOD) set, combining the monthly mean column abundances collected by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV and SBUV/2) instruments, provides a nearly continuous record from late 1978 to 2000 on a 5 10 latitudelongitude grid. The precision of these(More)