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Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate-filament protein expressed abundantly and almost exclusively in astrocytes of the CNS. We are studying transcriptional regulation of the GFAP gene to gain insight into astrocyte function and also to develop an astrocyte-specific expression system for manipulating brain physiology. In this work, we(More)
To understand astrocyte-specific transcription, we have been studying the human gfa gene. This gene encodes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament protein expressed primarily in astrocytes. A survey of the gfa 5' flanking region showed it to contain several segments that contribute to expression of a chloramphenicol(More)
Mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis is fundamental to regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, and cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. It has been known for decades that isolated mitochondria can take up Ca(2+) from the extramitochondrial solution, but the molecular identity of the Ca(2+) channels involved in this action is largely unknown.(More)
Six hours after heat shocking 2- to 3-month-old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 42 degrees C for 15 min, we analyzed tau protein immunoreactivity in SDS extracts of cerebrums and peripheral nerves by using immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry with the anti-tau monoclonal antibody Tau-1, which recognizes a phosphate-dependent(More)
We heat shocked 21- and 35-day-old fetal rat cerebral explants at 45 degrees C for 18 min and performed immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts using the monoclonal anti-tau antibodies Tau-1, Tau-5, Tau-46, and PHF-1 and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique or 125I-labeled protein A. Tau-1 and PHF-1 recognize(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh), both as a mitogen and as a morphogen, plays an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation during early development. Here, we show that Shh inhibits glutamate transporter activities in neurons, rapidly enhances extracellular glutamate levels, and affects the development of epilepsy. Shh is quickly released in response to(More)
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a secreted protein is important for neuronal development in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanism about SHH release remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that SHH was expressed mainly in the synaptic vesicles of hippocampus in both young postnatal and adult rats. High, but not low, frequency stimulation, induces(More)
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