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Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models(More)
In conventional metals, there is plenty of space for dislocations-line defects whose motion results in permanent material deformation-to multiply, so that the metal strengths are controlled by dislocation interactions with grain boundaries and other obstacles. For nanostructured materials, in contrast, dislocation multiplication is severely confined by the(More)
The strength-ductility trade-off has been a long-standing dilemma in materials science. This has limited the potential of many structural materials, steels in particular. Here we report a way of enhancing the strength of twinning-induced plasticity steel at no ductility trade-off. After applying torsion to cylindrical twinning-induced plasticity steel(More)
Recent experiments have demonstrated that plastic strains in nanocrystalline aluminum and gold films with grain sizes on the order of 50 nm are partially recoverable. To reveal the mechanisms behind such strain recovery, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations of plastic deformation in nanocrystalline aluminum with mean grain sizes of 10, 20,(More)
It is generally observed that the existence of geometrical discontinuity like notches in materials will lead to strength weakening, as a resultant of local stress concentration. By comparing the influence of notches to the strength of three typical materials, aluminum alloys with intermediate tensile ductility, metallic glasses with no tensile ductility,(More)
This paper examines relationship proneness of consumers in a cross-cultural setting; specifically, the relationship proneness between Chinese and U.S. consumers of Generation Y (born from 1976 to 1995) and its effects on relational satisfaction and relationship commitment. nine hypotheses were developed involving the effects of relationship building tactics(More)
The formation and stabilization of soil aggregates play a key role in soil functions. To date, few studies have been performed on the variation of soil aggregation with increasing soil weathering degree. Here, soil aggregation and its influencing factors along the weathering gradient were investigated. Six typical zonal soils (derived from similar parent(More)
Strength and ductility are mutually exclusive if they are manifested as consequence of the coupling between strengthening and toughening mechanisms. One notable example is dislocation strengthening in metals, which invariably leads to reduced ductility. However, this trend is averted in metastable austenitic steels. A one-step thermal mechanical treatment(More)
This paper quantitatively analyzed the evolution of human–water relationships in the Heihe River basin of northern China over the past 2000 years by reconstructing the catchment water balance partitioning precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff. The reconstruction results provided the basis for investigating the impacts of human so-5 cieties on(More)
Metallic glasses (MGs) typically have high yield strength while low ductility, and the latter is commonly considered as the Achilles' heel of MGs. Elucidate the mechanism for such low ductility becomes the research focus of this field. With molecular level simulations, we show the degree of short-range order (SRO) of atomic structure for brittle Fe-based(More)