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Bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness are the two key parameters that govern the rippling of suspended graphene-an unavoidable phenomenon of two-dimensional materials when subject to a thermal or mechanical field. A reliable determination about these two parameters is of significance for both the design and the manipulation of graphene morphology(More)
In conventional metals, there is plenty of space for dislocations-line defects whose motion results in permanent material deformation-to multiply, so that the metal strengths are controlled by dislocation interactions with grain boundaries and other obstacles. For nanostructured materials, in contrast, dislocation multiplication is severely confined by the(More)
The two-dimensional crystalline structures in graphene challenge the applicability of existing theories that have been used for characterizing its three-dimensional counterparts. It is crucial to establish reliable structure-property relationships in the important two-dimensional crystals to fully use their remarkable properties. With the success in(More)
Core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with lipid shells and varying water content and rigidity but with the same chemical composition, size, and surface properties are assembled using a microfluidic platform. Rigidity can dramatically alter the cellular uptake efficiency, with more-rigid NPs able to pass more easily through cell membranes. The mechanism accounting(More)
Mechanical property of dumbbell-like Au-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) is investigated from a synthetic point of view by overgrowing Au(2) on the Au(1)-Fe(3)O(4) NPs. The competitive growth of Au(2) on the preformed Au(1)-Fe(3)O(4) NPs induced an interesting "tug-of-war" between Au(2) and Fe(3)O(4) in the formed Au(2)-Au(1)-Fe(3)O(4) ternary nanostructure.(More)
Grain refinement can make conventional metals several times stronger, but this comes at dramatic loss of ductility. Here we report a heterogeneous lamella structure in Ti produced by asymmetric rolling and partial recrystallization that can produce an unprecedented property combination: as strong as ultrafine-grained metal and at the same time as ductile as(More)
The strength-ductility trade-off has been a long-standing dilemma in materials science. This has limited the potential of many structural materials, steels in particular. Here we report a way of enhancing the strength of twinning-induced plasticity steel at no ductility trade-off. After applying torsion to cylindrical twinning-induced plasticity steel(More)
Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers with the ability to respond to tumorous heterogeneity have been extensively developed for drug delivery. However, the premature release during blood circulation and insufficient intracellular drug release are still a significant issue. Herein, three disulfide bonds are introduced into the amphiphilic poly(ethylene(More)
The functionalized lipid shell of hybrid nanoparticles plays an important role for improving their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Yet few efforts have been made to critically examine the shell structure of nanoparticles and its effect on cell-particle interaction. Here we develop a microfluidic chip allowing for the synthesis of structurally(More)
Modulation of Pd nanoparticle (NP) crystallinity is achieved by switching the surfactants of different binding strengths. Pd NPs synthesized in the presence of weak binding surfactants such as oleylamine possess polyhedral shapes and a polycrystalline nature. When oleylamine is substituted by trioctylphosphine, a much stronger binding surfactant, the(More)