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With the development of nanotechnology and the wide use of graphene, it has become necessary to assess the potential biological adverse effects of graphene. However, most of the recent publications are focused on various modified graphenes. We demonstrated biological effects of commercial pristine graphene in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, which is an(More)
Current service architecture description language and composition approaches consider simplistic method invocation. They pay less attention to the formal semantics and verification of service composition in the design, and less support property specifications and architecture validation. This paper presents an executable web service architecture model,(More)
Web services provide a language-neutral, loosely-coupled, and platform independent way for linking applications within organizations or enterprises across the Internet. Web services communicate with each other via XML format messages. This paper presents a web service architecture model, Service-Oriented Software Architecture Model (SO-SAM), which is an(More)
Web systems are self-descriptive software components which can automatically be discovered and engaged, together with other web components, to complete tasks over the Internet. Unified Modeling Language (UML), a widely accepted object-oriented system modeling and design language, and adapted for software architecture descriptions for several years, has been(More)
A software architecture design has many benefits including aiding comprehension, supporting early analysis, and providing guidance for subsequent development activities. An additional major benefit is if a partial prototype implementation can be automatically generated from a given software architecture design. However, in the past decade less progress was(More)
A software architecture design provides a high-level abstraction of system topology, functionality, and/or behavior; which provides the basis for early system understanding and analysis as well as the foundation for subsequent detailed design and implementation. However, research on software architecture in the past decade primarily focused on architecture(More)
Software architectures shift developers' focus from lines-of-code to coarser-grained architectural elements and their interconnection structure. However, the benefits of architecture description languages (ADLs) cannot be fully captured without an automated realization of software architecture designs because manually shifting from a model to its(More)