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More than 150 genes have been identified that affect skin color either directly or indirectly, and we review current understanding of physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. We focus on melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer, melanogenic regulators in melanocytes, and factors derived from keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells,(More)
Reconstituted 3-dimensional human skin equivalents containing melanocytes and keratinocytes on an artificial dermal substitute are gaining popularity for studies of skin metabolism because they exhibit morphological and growth characteristics similar to human epidermis. In this study, we show that such a pigmented epidermis model can be used to assess the(More)
The organization of the microfilaments in epidermal cells of Vallisneria leaves was investigated with respect to the induction of cytoplasmic streaming (secondary streaming). In many of the epidermal cells, cytoplasm exhibited rotational streaming along the anticlinal wall of the cell after exposure around the anticlinal wall. The bundles were arrayed in(More)
DNA damage induced by UV radiation is a critical event in skin photocarcinogenesis. However, the role of racial/ethnic origin in determining individual UV sensitivity remains unclear. In this study, we examined the relationships between melanin content and DNA damage induced by UV exposure in situ in normal human skin of different racial/ethnic groups,(More)
In the bone marrow of C/EBP epsilon(-/-) mice, expression of neutrophil secondary and tertiary granule mRNAs is absent for lactoferrin (LF), neutrophil gelatinase (NG), murine cathelin-like protein (MCLP), and the cathelin B9; it is severely reduced for neutrophil collagenase (NC) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). In addition, the(More)
Pigmentation of human skin is closely involved in protection against environmental stresses, in particular exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is well known that darker skin is significantly more resistant to the damaging effects of UV, such as photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, than is lighter skin. Constitutive skin pigmentation depends on the(More)
Although it is now widely recognized that tobacco smoke has negative effects on the skin, the molecular mechanisms underlying its skin-aging effects remain uncertain. Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoking is a strong independent predictor of facial wrinkle formation and other aspects of premature skin aging. Recent in vivo studies in humans(More)
To elucidate biologic functions of hepatocyte growth factor and the c-Met receptor in cutaneous wound healing, we analyzed expression and localization of hepatocyte growth factor and c-Met receptor and used a strategy to neutralize endogenous hepatocyte growth factor in a cutaneous wound healing model in mice. Following excision of full-thickness skin on(More)
Melanin plays an important role in protecting the skin against UV radiation, and melanomas and basal/squamous cell carcinomas occur more frequently in individuals with fair/light skin. We previously reported that levels of melanin correlate inversely with amounts of DNA damage induced by UV in normal human skin of different racial/ethnic groups. We have now(More)