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Quantitative evaluation of the shapes of biological organs is often required in various research fields, such as agronomy, medicine, genetics, ecology, and taxonomy. Elliptic Fourier descriptors (EFDs), proposed by Kuhl and Giardina (1982), can delineate any type of shape with a closed two-dimensional contour and have been effectively applied to the(More)
The existence of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) is usually tested using the likelihood of the quantitative trait on the basis of phenotypic character data plus the recombination fraction between QTL and flanking markers. When doing this, the likelihood is calculated for all possible locations on the linkage map. When multiple QTL are suspected close by,(More)
We have previously proposed a method of cutting bones using high intensity focused ultrasound. The goal of the method is to cut bones in a body without incising skin, but the condition under which bones are cut properly is so sensitive that 1 mm of displacement makes cutting bones fail resulting in necrosis around the focal point. In this paper, we have(More)
In this study we show how the genetic variance of a quantitative trait changes in a self-fertilizing population under repeated cycles of truncation selection, with the analysis based on the infinitesimal model in which it is assumed that the trait is determined by an infinite number of unlinked loci without epistasis. The genetic variance is reduced not as(More)
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