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The closure of skin wounds is essential for resistance against microbial pathogens, and keratinocyte migration is an important step in skin wound healing. Cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37 is an innate antimicrobial peptide that is expressed in the skin and acts to eliminate microbial pathogens. Because hCAP18/LL-37 is up-regulated at skin wound sites, we(More)
Keratinocyte proliferation and migration are essential to cutaneous wound healing and are, in part, mediated in an autocrine fashion by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ligand interactions. EGFR ligands are initially synthesized as membrane-anchored forms, but can be processed and shed as soluble forms. We provide evidence here that wound stimuli(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent, multifunctional, endothelial-cell-specific growth factor. It stimulates proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Characterization of intracellular signal transduction after VEGF and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) interaction has demonstrated the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the effects of epiregulin, a newly identified member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, on the proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). METHODS The proliferation of HCECs was determined by cell counting and BrdU incorporation assays at specific times after exposure to different concentrations of human(More)
Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal.(More)
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) is a family of enzymes involved in ectodomain shedding of various membrane proteins. However, the molecular mechanism underlying substrate recognition by ADAMs remains unknown. In this study, we successfully captured and analyzed cell surface transient assemblies between the transmembrane amphiregulin precursor(More)
PURPOSE The toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and its synthetic analog polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), and the activation of TLR3 is known to induce the production of type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by innate(More)
1. Voltage-independent whole-cell Cl- currents were recorded from both single, isolated parietal cells and parietal cells within gastric glands obtained from the fundus of guinea-pig stomach. 2. The Cl- currents were rapidly suppressed by a Cl- channel blocker, NPPB (5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate), added to the (basolateral) bathing solution in a(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a member of the NF-kappaB pathway and regulates inflammatory responses. We previously showed that TAK1 also regulates keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether TAK1 has any role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. To examine this possibility, we(More)