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An electricity-generating bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA, was inoculated into a single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) in order to determine the maximum electron transfer rate from bacteria to the anode. To create anodic reaction-limiting conditions, where electron transfer from bacteria to the anode is the rate-limiting step, anodes(More)
Molecular surveys of aphotic habitats have indicated the presence of major uncultured lineages phylogenetically classified as members of the Cyanobacteria. One of these lineages has recently been proposed as a nonphotosynthetic sister phylum to the Cyanobacteria, the Melainabacteria, based on recovery of population genomes from human gut and groundwater(More)
For the identification and quantification of methanogenic archaea (methanogens) in environmental samples, various oligonucleotide probes/primers targeting phylogenetic markers of methanogens, such as 16S rRNA, 16S rRNA gene and the gene for the α-subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), have been extensively developed and characterized experimentally.(More)
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. One of the goals of MFC research is to develop the technology for cost-effective wastewater treatment. However, before practical MFC applications are implemented it is important to gain fundamental knowledge(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, leading to the development of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We prepared extracts from 61 marine organisms and screened them by an in vitro fluorescence assay targeting the viral helicase (NS3), which plays an important role in HCV replication, to identify(More)
Filamentous cells belonging to the candidate bacterial phylum KSB3 were previously identified as the causative agent of fatal filament overgrowth (bulking) in a high-rate industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Here, we obtained near complete genomes from two KSB3 populations in the bioreactor, including the dominant bulking filament, using(More)
A rapid and simple approach to the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based quantitative detection of a specific group of microorganisms in complex ecosystems has been developed. The method employs sequence-specific cleavage of rRNA molecules with oligonucleotides and RNase H. Defined mixtures of SSU rRNAs were mixed with an oligonucleotide (referred to as a "scissor(More)
The improvement in electricity generation during the enrichment process of a microbial consortium was analyzed using an air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) repeatedly fed with acetate that was originally inoculated with sludge from an anaerobic digester. The anodic maximum current density produced by the anode biofilm increased from 0.12 mA/cm2 at day 28(More)
The helicase portion of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is considered one of the most validated targets for developing direct acting antiviral agents. We isolated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) 1 from a marine sponge as an NS3 helicase inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of PBDE (1) on the essential(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important etiological agent that is responsible for the development of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase is a possible target for novel drug development due to its essential role in viral replication. In this study, we identified halisulfate 3 (hal3) and(More)