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Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with complex clinical features. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) maps to the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-q27) and is linked strongly to the markers D6S305 and D6S253; the former is deleted in one Japanese AR-JP patient. By positional cloning within this microdeletion, we have(More)
Antisense transcription (transcription from the opposite strand to a protein-coding or sense strand) has been ascribed roles in gene regulation involving degradation of the corresponding sense transcripts (RNA interference), as well as gene silencing at the chromatin level. Global transcriptome analysis provides evidence that a large proportion of the(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive accumulation in selected neurons of protein inclusions containing alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin. Rare inherited forms of PD are caused by autosomal dominant mutations in alpha-synuclein or by autosomal recessive mutations in parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We(More)
Mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) has a common property to form an amphiphilic helical structure which is essential for its effective transport of mitochondrial protein. Natural polymorphism in human MTS which affects its mitochondrial transport ability has not been reported. Furthermore, no structural polymorphism for manganese superoxide dismutase(More)
Acrolein (CH2==CH---CHO) is known as a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment. Here we show that this notorious aldehyde is not just a pollutant, but also a lipid peroxidation product that could be ubiquitously generated in biological systems. Upon incubation with BSA, acrolein was rapidly incorporated into the protein and generated the protein-linked(More)
There is growing evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory failure with attendant decrease in energy output are implicated in nigral neuronal death in Parkinson disease (PD). It is not known, however, which cellular elements (neurons or glial cells) are major targets of oxygen-mediated damage. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) was shown earlier(More)
The dystrophin associated proteins (DAPs) are good candidates for harboring primary mutations in the genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive muscular dystrophies (ARMD). The transmembrane components of the DAPs can be separated into the dystroglycan and the sarcoglycan complexes. Here we report the isolation of cDNAs encoding the 43 kD sarcoglycan(More)
Dystrobrevin is a component of the dystrophin-associated protein complex and has been shown to interact directly with dystrophin, alpha1-syntrophin, and the sarcoglycan complex. The precise role of alpha-dystrobrevin in skeletal muscle has not yet been determined. To study alpha-dystrobrevin's function in skeletal muscle, we used the yeast two-hybrid(More)
The activities of caspase-1 and caspase-3 were measured by use of fluoropeptides as substrates for the first time in the brain (substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, putamen, cerebellum, and frontal cortex) from control and parkinsonian patients. The activities of caspases in the brain were significantly higher in the substantia nigra from parkinsonian(More)