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Mathematical models are applied to simulate multiphase, turbulent fluid flow in a RH degassing vessel using FLUENT, including the motion of molten steel, injected argon gas, inclusion particles, and the top free surface. Predicted inclusion removal rates are validated with measurements based on samples collected from operating degassers. The results(More)
Hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the "energy source" for a variety of biochemical processes. In the present work, we address key features of ATP hydrolysis: the relatively moderate value (about -10 kcal/mol) of the standard free energy, ΔGhyd, of reaction and the insensitivity of ΔGhyd to the number of excess electrons on ATP. We conducted(More)
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