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Maize may be transformed very efficiently using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated methods. The most critical factor in the transformation protocol is the co-cultivation of healthy immature embryos of the correct developmental stage with A. tumefaciens; the embryos should be collected only from vigorous plants grown in well-conditioned glasshouses. With the(More)
We explored the general feasibility of proton beam therapy for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Clinical records and treatment-planning data of patients with the pathological diagnosis of chordoma or chondrosarcoma were examined. Proton beam therapy was administered for gross tumor mass as well as microscopic residual disease after surgery.(More)
Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that(More)
Recent progress in the treatment for pediatric malignancies using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy has improved survival. However, late toxicities of radiotherapy are a concern in long-term survivors. A recent study suggested reduced secondary cancer and other late toxicities after proton beam therapy (PBT) due to dosimetric(More)
BACKGROUND To compare proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in terms of their organ doses and ability to cause secondary cancer in normal organs. METHODS Five patients (median age, 4 years; range, 2-11 years) who underwent PBT for retroperitoneal neuroblastoma were selected for(More)
In this paper, the concept of forcefree control is extended to realize flexible motion of industrial articulated robot arms under the virtual operational circumstances such as free of inertia, friction and gravity through independent compensation of inertia, friction and gravity. The forcefree control with independent compensation was verified with an(More)
Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a potential new alternative to treatment with photon radiotherapy that may reduce the risk of late toxicity and secondary cancer, especially for pediatric tumors. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term benefits of PBT in cancer survivors. A retrospective observational study of pediatric patients who received PBT(More)
Melanotic or melanocytic medulloblastoma is a rare variant of medulloblastoma, especially when the tumor shows advanced neuronal differentiation. We report a case of this tumor, which developed in the cerebellar vermis in an 8-year-old girl. Initial biopsy specimens were identified as classical medulloblastoma with a high MIB1 index. Surgical removal of the(More)
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