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Maize may be transformed very efficiently using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated methods. The most critical factor in the transformation protocol is the co-cultivation of healthy immature embryos of the correct developmental stage with A. tumefaciens; the embryos should be collected only from vigorous plants grown in well-conditioned glasshouses. With the(More)
A binary vector is a standard tool in the transformation of higher plants mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is composed of the borders of T-DNA, multiple cloning sites, replication functions for Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens, selectable marker genes, reporter genes, and other accessory elements that can improve the efficiency of and/or give(More)
Monocotyledonous plants were believed to be not transformable by the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens until two decades ago, although convenient protocols for infection of leaf disks and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants had been well established in a number of dicotyledonous species by then. This belief was reinforced by the fact that(More)
NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) are specifically expressed in bundle sheath cells (BSCs) in NADP-ME-type and PCK-type C4 plants, respectively. Unlike the high activities of these enzymes in the green leaves of C4 plants, their low activities have been detected in the leaves of C3 plants. In order to elucidate the(More)
Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a potential new alternative to treatment with photon radiotherapy that may reduce the risk of late toxicity and secondary cancer, especially for pediatric tumors. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term benefits of PBT in cancer survivors. A retrospective observational study of pediatric patients who received PBT(More)
Wheat may now be transformed very efficiently by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Under the protocol hereby described, immature embryos of healthy plants of wheat cultivar Fielder grown in a well-conditioned greenhouse were pretreated with centrifuging and cocultivated with A. tumefaciens. Transgenic wheat plants were obtained routinely from between 40 and 90 %(More)
We explored the general feasibility of proton beam therapy for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Clinical records and treatment-planning data of patients with the pathological diagnosis of chordoma or chondrosarcoma were examined. Proton beam therapy was administered for gross tumor mass as well as microscopic residual disease after surgery.(More)
Tamavidin 2 is a fungal avidin-like protein that binds biotin with high affinity and is highly produced in soluble form in Escherichia coli. By contrast, widely used biotin-binding proteins avidin and streptavidin are rarely produced in soluble form in E. coli. In this study, we describe an efficient system for one-step purification and immobilization of(More)
The objective of present study was to assess the simultaneous removal of organic pollutants and nutrients by five laboratory scale up-flow constructed wetlands (UFCWs). Aerobic and anaerobic regions were well developed at the upper and lower beds, respectively, in the UFCW reactors with supplementary aeration. The emergent plants employed were Phragmites(More)