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Many of the protists thought to represent the deepest branches on the eukaryotic tree are assigned to a loose assemblage called the "excavates." This includes the mitochondrion-lacking diplomonads and parabasalids (e.g., Giardia and Trichomonas) and the jakobids (e.g., Reclinomonas). We report the first multigene phylogenetic analyses to include a(More)
Understanding the early evolution and diversification of eukaryotes relies on a fully resolved phylogenetic tree. In recent years, most eukaryotic diversity has been assigned to six putative supergroups, but the evolutionary origin of a few major "orphan" lineages remains elusive. Two ecologically important orphan groups are the heterotrophic Telonemia and(More)
Microsporidia branch at the base of eukaryotic phylogenies inferred from translation elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) sequences. Because these parasitic eukaryotes are fungi (or close relatives of fungi), it is widely accepted that fast-evolving microsporidian sequences are artifactually "attracted" to the long branch leading to the archaebacterial(More)
It has long been recognized that the rates of molecular evolution vary amongst sites in proteins. The usual model for rate heterogeneity assumes independent rate variation according to a rate distribution. In such models the rate at a site, although random, is assumed fixed throughout the evolutionary tree. Recent work by several groups has suggested that(More)
Translation elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha, or EF-Tu in bacteria) is a highly conserved core component of the translation machinery that is shared by all cellular life. It is part of a large superfamily of GTPases that are involved in translation initiation, elongation, and termination, as well as several other cellular functions. Eukaryotic EF-1alpha(More)
Recent culture-independent surveys of eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) from many environments have unveiled unexpectedly high diversity of microbial eukaryotes (microeukaryotes) at various taxonomic levels. However, such surveys were most probably biased by various technical difficulties, resulting in underestimation of microeukaryotic(More)
Phylogenetic analyses of first and second codon positions (DNA1 + 2 analysis) and amino acid sequences (protein analysis) are often thought to provide similar estimates of deep-level phylogeny. However, here we report a novel artifact influencing DNA level phylogenetic inference of protein-coding genes introduced by codon usage heterogeneity that causes(More)
Plastid replacements through secondary endosymbioses include massive transfer of genes from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and require a new targeting system to enable transport of the plastid-targeted proteins across 3-4 plastid membranes. The dinoflagellates are the only eukaryotic lineage that has been shown to have undergone several plastid(More)
Oxidative stress is a key factor regulating the systemic pathophysiological effects associated with periodontitis. Resveratrol is a phytochemical with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. We hypothesized that resveratrol may prevent the progression of periodontitis and reduce systemic oxidative(More)
Genes encoding elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins, which show high similarity to elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha), have been found in phylogenetically distantly related eukaryotes. The sporadic distribution of "EFL-containing" lineages within "EF-1alpha-containing" lineages indirectly, but strongly, suggests lateral gene transfer as the principal(More)