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Microsporidia branch at the base of eukaryotic phylogenies inferred from translation elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) sequences. Because these parasitic eukaryotes are fungi (or close relatives of fungi), it is widely accepted that fast-evolving microsporidian sequences are artifactually "attracted" to the long branch leading to the archaebacterial(More)
Many of the protists thought to represent the deepest branches on the eukaryotic tree are assigned to a loose assemblage called the "excavates." This includes the mitochondrion-lacking diplomonads and parabasalids (e.g., Giardia and Trichomonas) and the jakobids (e.g., Reclinomonas). We report the first multigene phylogenetic analyses to include a(More)
It has long been recognized that the rates of molecular evolution vary amongst sites in proteins. The usual model for rate heterogeneity assumes independent rate variation according to a rate distribution. In such models the rate at a site, although random, is assumed fixed throughout the evolutionary tree. Recent work by several groups has suggested that(More)
Using analytical methods, we show that under a variety of model misspecifications, Neighbor-Joining, minimum evolution, and least squares estimation procedures are statistically inconsistent. Failure to correctly account for differing rates-across-sites processes, failure to correctly model rate matrix parameters, and failure to adjust for parallel(More)
Phylogenetic analyses of first and second codon positions (DNA1 + 2 analysis) and amino acid sequences (protein analysis) are often thought to provide similar estimates of deep-level phylogeny. However, here we report a novel artifact influencing DNA level phylogenetic inference of protein-coding genes introduced by codon usage heterogeneity that causes(More)
Recent culture-independent surveys of eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) from many environments have unveiled unexpectedly high diversity of microbial eukaryotes (microeukaryotes) at various taxonomic levels. However, such surveys were most probably biased by various technical difficulties, resulting in underestimation of microeukaryotic(More)
Translation elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha, or EF-Tu in bacteria) is a highly conserved core component of the translation machinery that is shared by all cellular life. It is part of a large superfamily of GTPases that are involved in translation initiation, elongation, and termination, as well as several other cellular functions. Eukaryotic EF-1alpha(More)
Dysnectes brevis n. gen., n. sp., a free-living heterotrophic flagellate that grows under microaerophilic conditions possesses two flagella. The posterior one lies in a ventral feeding groove, suggesting that this flagellate is an excavate. Our detailed electron microscopic observations revealed that D. brevis possesses all the key ultrastructural(More)
Transitions from unicellularity to multicellularity have occurred several times in the history of life. known as the DRIPs or Mesomycetozoea), Ministeria and Corallochytrium [1,2]. Among these unicellular opisthokonts we should expect to find the closest extant relatives of the multicellular Metazoa and Fungi. Choanoflagellates have traditionally been(More)
Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) may be present in association with gingival recession. The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively the association of gingival recession and other factors with the presence of DH. One hundred and four Japanese subjects with or without gingival recession were randomly selected. Intact canines and/or first premolars in(More)