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A multichannel functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for the restoration of quadriplegic upper extremity function is described. The system is composed of a personal computer NEC PC-8801mkII, peripheral electronic circuits, CRT display and respiratory sensors for volitional control by the patient, and percutaneous electrodes. A C4 quadriplegic(More)
Endothelin, a recently discovered peptide produced by endothelial cells, has been shown to have potent constrictor effects on major arteries in vitro. This experiment was performed to determine whether endothelin plays a physiological role in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cisternal injection of endothelin (10(-8) mol or 10(-9) mol)(More)
To investigate the role of immunological reactions in the development of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the authors studied the correlation between immune/inflammatory reactions in the arterial wall and the time course of vasospasm in primates. Twenty monkeys were divided into four groups of 5 animals each: 1) a control group of(More)
We investigated the histological changes between arteries constricted by endothelin for 7 days and vasospastic arteries induced by the double injection of autologous blood. Group 1 was a sham-operated group. Group 2 animals received a continuous cisternal injection of endothelin-1 (1.7 x 10(-9) mol/7 days) by a miniosmotic pump implanted in the neck(More)
A chordoid glioma in the third ventricle was studied immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. In this report, special attention is paid to the histogenesis in relation to the pathological appearance and unique anatomic location of this tumor. Light microscopic and immunohistochemical findings were similar to those reported previously. Ultrastructurally,(More)
Seventeen hemiplegic patients with chronic shoulder subluxation secondary to a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) were divided into three groups, two of which were subjected to 6 weeks of therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) for 15 minutes twice a day, in order to assess the effectiveness of the treatment in reducing subluxation, and in improving shoulder(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the median frequencies (MF) of the electromyogram (EMG) and the integrated EMG (IEMG) of histochemically differentiated ankle plantarflexors, the gastrocnemius and soleus, were force dependent. Bipolar intramuscular wire electrodes were used to measure EMG of the soleus (SO), medial head of gastrocnemius(More)
The effect of complete clot removal at times from 48 to 96 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on the development of chronic cerebral vasospasm was evaluated to determine whether there is a critical point after which clot removal is ineffective in preventing vasospasm. Thirty cynomolgus monkeys were randomized to one of five groups: sham-operated(More)
OBJECT It remains unclear whether elderly patients with compressive cervical myelopathy can be expected to experience a promising surgery-related outcome after undergoing expansive laminoplasty. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of expansive laminoplasty in elderly patients with cervical myelopathy due to multisegmental spondylotic(More)