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Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, which is thought to result from the effect of environmental factors in a genetically predisposed host. A gene location in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, IBD1, that contributes to susceptibility to Crohn's disease has been established through multiple linkage(More)
OBJECTIVE Two similarly designed, phase-3 studies (VEGF Trap-Eye: Investigation of Efficacy and Safety in Wet AMD [VIEW 1, VIEW 2]) of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared monthly and every-2-month dosing of intravitreal aflibercept injection (VEGF Trap-Eye; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY, and Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany) with monthly(More)
Apaf-1 and Nod1 are members of a protein family, each of which contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) linked to a nucleotide-binding domain, which regulate apoptosis and/or NF-kappaB activation. Nod2, a third member of the family, was identified. Nod2 is composed of two N-terminal CARDs, a nucleotide-binding domain, and multiple C-terminal(More)
Nod1 is an Apaf-1-like molecule composed of a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD), nucleotide-binding domain, and leucine-rich repeats that associates with the CARD-containing kinase RICK and activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We show that self-association of Nod1 mediates proximity of RICK and the interaction of RICK with the gamma subunit of the(More)
Alu RNA accumulation due to DICER1 deficiency in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is implicated in geographic atrophy (GA), an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration that causes blindness in millions of individuals. The mechanism of Alu RNA-induced cytotoxicity is unknown. Here we show that DICER1 deficit or Alu RNA exposure activates the(More)
PURPOSE To determine efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) during a second year of variable dosing after a first-year fixed-dosing period. DESIGN Two randomized, double-masked, active-controlled, phase 3 trials. PARTICIPANTS Two thousand four hundred fifty-seven patients with(More)
Corneal avascularity-the absence of blood vessels in the cornea-is required for optical clarity and optimal vision, and has led to the cornea being widely used for validating pro- and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for many disorders. But the molecular underpinnings of the avascular phenotype have until now remained obscure and are all the more(More)
Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) levels reportedly correlate with histological features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We examined serum DCP as a predictor of HCC recurrence in 144 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed superiority of DCP and AFP over preoperative tumor(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the distribution of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and angiogenic cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and to identify their cellular source in surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) of various origins. METHODS Immunoperoxidase(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) on the reduction of diffuse diabetic macular edema with different optical coherence tomographic patterns. METHODS One hundred and thirty-five eyes with diffuse diabetic macular edema without any treatment that had received a single dose (4 mg in 0.1 mL) of IVTA were(More)