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Encephalitis is the most severe manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) infection by Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV). VZV associated encephalitis is now recognized to be a vasculopathy that affects large or small cerebral arteries. This report describes an autopsy case of an immunocompetent 66-year-old male who developed a progressive small vessel(More)
OBJECTIVE Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) is a clinical diagnosis characterised by progressive lower motor neuron (LMN) symptoms/signs with sporadic adult onset. It is unclear whether PMA is simply a clinical phenotype of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in which upper motor neuron (UMN) signs are undetectable. To elucidate the clinicopathological(More)
IMPORTANCE TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although a pathological continuity between FTLD and ALS has been suggested, the neuropathological changes of the lower motor neuron (LMN) systems have not been assessed in(More)
BACKGROUND Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disorder. Patients with INAD usually show neurological symptoms with infant onset and die in childhood. Recently, it was reported that mutations in the PLA2G6 gene cause INAD, but neuropathological analysis of genetically confirmed individuals with neuroaxonal(More)
Cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregation is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Here we investigated the role of exosomes in the secretion and propagation of TDP-43 aggregates. TDP-43 was detected in secreted exosomes from Neuro2a cells and primary neurons but not from astrocytes or microglia. Evidence is(More)
Both multifocal fibrosclerosis and hypertrophic pachymeningitis are rare disorders of unknown etiology, characterised by chronic inflammation leading to dense fibrosis. There have been several reports of multifocal fibrosclerosis with hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently associated with various extrapancreatic lesions, their(More)
FUS is an RNA/DNA-binding protein involved in multiple steps of gene expression and is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, the specific disease-causing and/or modifying mechanism mediated by FUS is largely unknown. Here we evaluate intrinsic roles of FUS on synaptic functions and animal(More)
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a familial neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by progressive cognitive and motor dysfunction. Mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene have recently been identified in HDLS patients. The presence of diffuse axonal spheroids, myelin loss, and pigmented(More)
To clarify the role of α-synuclein (αSyn) in neuronal membrane remodeling, we analyzed the expression of αSyn in neurons with a dysfunction of PLA2G6, which is indispensable for membrane remodeling. αSyn/phosphorylated-αSyn (PαSyn) distribution and neurodegeneration were quantitatively estimated in PLA2G6-knockout (KO) mice, which demonstrate marked(More)
Fused in sarcoma (FUS) and splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ) are RNA binding proteins that regulate RNA metabolism. We found that alternative splicing of the Mapt gene at exon 10, which generates 4-repeat tau (4R-T) and 3-repeat tau (3R-T), is regulated by interactions between FUS and SFPQ in the nuclei of neurons. Hippocampus-specific(More)