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The B1 SOX transcription factors SOX1/2/3/19 have been implicated in various processes of early embryogenesis. However, their regulatory functions in stages from the blastula to early neurula remain largely unknown, primarily because loss-of-function studies have not been informative to date. In our present study, we systematically knocked down the B1 sox(More)
Despite the broad use of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) to knockdown gene function in zebrafish embryos, the efficiency of this method has not been successfully assessed, particularly in the cases of translation-blocking MOs. In our current study, we describe a luciferase assay-based system that can monitor the MO knockdown levels in zebrafish(More)
An enhancer trap-based GAL4-UAS system in zebrafish requires strong GAL4 activators with minimal adverse effects. However, the activity of yeast GAL4 is too low in zebrafish, while a fusion protein of the GAL4 DNA-binding domain and the VP16 activation domain is toxic to embryonic development, even when expressed at low levels. To alleviate this toxicity,(More)
In higher vertebrates, the expression of Sox2, a group B1 Sox gene, is the hallmark of neural primordial cell state during the developmental processes from embryo to adult. Sox2 is regulated by the combined action of many enhancers with distinct spatio-temporal specificities. DNA sequences for these enhancers are conserved in a wide range of vertebrate(More)
We observed that Faraday waves are parametrically generated on a free surface of superfluid 4He when a sample cell is vibrated vertically. Standing-wave patterns appear on the surface, and their frequencies are one-half the driving frequency. We observed clear threshold amplitudes of the vibration for the instability. The difference in the threshold between(More)
The response of 4He crystals to the rapid reduction of gravity down to practically zero in a superfluid was investigated visually, utilizing the parabolic flight of a jet plane. At a high temperature of 1.6 K, the shape of 4He crystals in the bcc phase did not change with a reduction of gravity during a parabolic period of 20 s, due to the low(More)
The dynamical transition in the crystallization of 4He in aerogel has been investigated by direct visualization and dynamical phase diagrams have been determined. The crystal-superfluid interface in aerogel advances via creep at high temperatures and avalanches at low temperatures. The transition temperature is higher at a higher interface velocity and(More)
Equilibrium crystal shape is the lowest energy crystal shape that is hardly realized in ordinary crystals because of their slow relaxation. (4)He quantum crystals in a superfluid have been expected as unique exceptions that grow extremely fast at very low temperatures. However, on the ground, gravity considerably deforms the crystals and conceals the(More)
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