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The insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into the plasma membrane is an important step in the synaptic delivery of AMPARs during the expression of synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AMPAR insertion remain elusive. By directly visualizing individual insertion events of the AMPAR subunit GluR1 in rodents, we found that the(More)
Synaptic spines are dynamic structures that regulate neuronal responsiveness and plasticity. We examined the role of the schizophrenia risk factor DISC1 in the maintenance of spine morphology and function. We found that DISC1 anchored Kalirin-7 (Kal-7), regulating access of Kal-7 to Rac1 and controlling the duration and intensity of Rac1 activation in(More)
The function, trafficking and synaptic signalling of AMPA receptors are tightly regulated by phosphorylation. CaMKII phosphorylates the GluA1 AMPA subunit at Ser831 to increase single channel conductance. We show for the first time that CaMKII increases the conductance of native heteromeric AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons via phosphorylation of(More)
The function, trafficking and synaptic signaling of AMPA receptors are tightly regulated by phosphorylation. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit at Ser831 to increase single-channel conductance. We show that CaMKII increases the conductance of native heteromeric AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal(More)
Previous studies have investigated neural correlates of visual search and memory search independently, but none of those studies examined whether cortical regions involved in these searches are overlapping or segregated by directly comparing the two types of search. In this study, we compared the cortical regions involved in visual search and memory search(More)
To investigate structural changes in cell membranes of the Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) brain, we immunostained for GM1 ganglioside which is a major component of the cell membrane. Our results have shown that astrocytic membranes and senile plaques (SPs) have the same immunoreactivity against the monoclonal anti-ganglioside GM1 antibody. Moreover, the(More)
Phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptors has been proposed to regulate receptor trafficking and synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it remains unclear whether GluA1 phosphorylation is permissive or sufficient for enacting these functional changes. Here we investigate the role of GluA1 phosphorylation at S831 and S845 residues in the(More)
OBJECTIVE Chronic hypoxia has been recognized as a key regulator in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as seen in diabetic nephropathy, which is associated with the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. We assess here the effects of the biguanide, metformin, on the expression of HIF-1α in diabetic nephropathy using renal proximal tubular cells(More)
A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney(More)
Brief strong depolarization of cerebellar Purkinje cells produces a slow inward cation current [depolarization-induced slow current (DISC)]. Previous work has shown that DISC is triggered by voltage-sensitive Ca influx in the Purkinje cell and is attenuated by blockers of vesicular loading and fusion. Here, we have sought to characterize the ion channel(s)(More)