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OBJECTIVE Chronic hypoxia has been recognized as a key regulator in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as seen in diabetic nephropathy, which is associated with the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. We assess here the effects of the biguanide, metformin, on the expression of HIF-1α in diabetic nephropathy using renal proximal tubular cells(More)
A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney(More)
Tubular injury is one of the important determinants of progressive renal failure in diabetic nephropathy (DN), and TGF-β1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial disease that characterizes proteinuric renal disease. The aim of this study was to identify novel therapeutic target molecules that play a role in the tubule damage of DN. We(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) possess multiple bioactive isoforms that are rendered non-insulinotropic by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Recently, some ELISA kits have been developed to specifically measure "active" GIP and GLP-1, but it is unclear if these kits can accurately(More)
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypepide (GIP) was first extracted from porcine gut mucosa and identified as "incretin" decades ago. Though early studies have shown the possible GIP isoforms by gel filtration profiles from porcine or human intestinal extracts analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA), GIP is currently believed to consist of 42 amino acids(More)
Diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide and recently it has been recognized as a high risk for the development of cardio-vascular disease. Clinical features of diabetic nephropathy are development of albuminuria followed by persistent pro-teinuria and, later, reduction of(More)
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