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The insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into the plasma membrane is an important step in the synaptic delivery of AMPARs during the expression of synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AMPAR insertion remain elusive. By directly visualizing individual insertion events of the AMPAR subunit GluR1 in rodents, we found that the(More)
Synaptic spines are dynamic structures that regulate neuronal responsiveness and plasticity. We examined the role of the schizophrenia risk factor DISC1 in the maintenance of spine morphology and function. We found that DISC1 anchored Kalirin-7 (Kal-7), regulating access of Kal-7 to Rac1 and controlling the duration and intensity of Rac1 activation in(More)
1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1BnTIQ) was detected as a novel endogenous amine in mouse brain and parkinsonian CSF by using the gas chromatography-selected ion-monitoring method. The level of 1BnTIQ was very high in CSF of some parkinsonian patients compared with that of controls with other neurological diseases, the mean value being three times(More)
The function, trafficking and synaptic signalling of AMPA receptors are tightly regulated by phosphorylation. CaMKII phosphorylates the GluA1 AMPA subunit at Ser831 to increase single channel conductance. We show for the first time that CaMKII increases the conductance of native heteromeric AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons via phosphorylation of(More)
This is the first report confirming the presence of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline(1MeTIQ) in a number of foods with a high 2-phenylethylamine content. These compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study also confirmed that 1MeTIQ and TIQ can cross the blood-brain barrier in(More)
A new sensitive and convenient method for the structural analysis of oligosaccharides was developed, in which partial acid hydrolysis was combined with two-dimensional sugar mapping of pyridylamino (PA)-oligosaccharides. A PA-oligosaccharide was partially hydrolyzed, the acid hydrolysis conditions being optimized so as to obtain various PA-oligosaccharide(More)
In response to decreased cellular oxygen concentrations the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS (Per, Arnt, Sim) hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF-1alpha, mediates activation of networks of target genes involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and glycolysis. Here we demonstrate that the mechanism of activation of HIF-1alpha is a multi-step process(More)
Alteration of gene expression is a crucial component of adaptive responses to hypoxia. These responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Here we describe an inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein, IPAS, which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS protein structurally related to HIFs. IPAS contains no endogenous(More)
Insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply often restrain solid tumor growth, and the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) 1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha are key transcription regulators of phenotypic adaptation to low oxygen levels. Moreover, mouse gene disruption studies have implicated HIF-2 alpha in embryonic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, a hallmark gene of the(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Incretins stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner but also promote pancreatic beta cell protection. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new glucose-lowering treatment that blocks incretin degradation by DPP-4. We assessed whether DPP-4 inhibition suppresses the progression to hyperglycaemia in a low-dose(More)