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DNA methyltransferases Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b cooperatively regulate cytosine methylation in CpG dinucleotides in mammalian genomes, providing an epigenetic basis for gene silencing and maintenance of genome integrity. Proper CpG methylation is required for the normal growth of various somatic cell types, indicating its essential role in the basic(More)
DNA methylation regulates development and many epigenetic processes in mammals, and it is required for somatic cell growth and survival. In contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells can self-renew without DNA methylation. It remains unclear whether any lineage-committed cells can survive without DNA-methylation machineries. Unlike in somatic cells, DNA(More)
Bisulfite sequencing, a standard method for DNA methylation profile analysis, is widely used in basic and clinical studies. This method is limited, however, by the time-consuming data analysis processes required to obtain accurate DNA methylation profiles from the raw sequence output of the DNA sequencer, and by the fact that quality checking of the results(More)
Mammalian circadian clocks consist of regulatory loops mediated by Clock/Bmal1-binding elements, DBP/E4BP4 binding elements, and RevErbA/ROR binding elements. As a step toward system-level understanding of the dynamic transcriptional regulation of the oscillator, we constructed and used a mammalian promoter/enhancer database (http://promoter.cdb.riken.jp/)(More)
The activity of six fluoroquinolones (FQs) was determined against 100 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in 2002 along with mutations in the grlA and gyrA genes and in the norA promoter of these isolates. Of the isolates tested, 97% had mutations in grlA and gyrA. A single mutation in grlA and gyrA resulted in a decrease of(More)
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). 5fC and 5caC can be excised and repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway, implicating 5mC oxidation in active DNA demethylation. Genome-wide DNA methylation is erased in the transition from(More)
AIMS To investigate the attractant effect of 4-O-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc-GlcN) in the chemotaxis of Vibrio bacteria that produce carbohydrate esterase (CE) family 4 chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase (COD), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of GlcNAc-GlcN from N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)(2). METHODS AND RESULTS The(More)
DNA methylation changes dynamically during development and is essential for embryogenesis in mammals. However, how DNA methylation affects developmental gene expression and cell differentiation remains elusive. During embryogenesis, many key transcription factors are used repeatedly, triggering different outcomes depending on the cell type and developmental(More)
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