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Tumor neovascularization and growth might be promoted by the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC), which include endothelial precursor cells and "vascular modulatory" myelomonocytic (CD11b+) cells. BMDCs may also drive tumor regrowth after certain chemotherapeutic and vascular disruption treatments. In this study, we evaluated the role of BMDC(More)
The recent approval of Provenge has brought new hope for anticancer vaccine therapies. However, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment seems to impair the efficacy of vaccine therapies. The abnormal tumor vasculature creates a hypoxic microenvironment that polarizes inflammatory cells toward immune suppression. Moreover, tumors systemically alter(More)
Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor. Although current therapies improve survival, these regimens are highly toxic and are associated with significant morbidity. Here, we report that placental growth factor (PlGF) is expressed in the majority of medulloblastomas, independent of their subtype. Moreover, high expression of PlGF(More)
Purpose: Unlike platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), the role of PDGF-D in tumor progression or treatment is largely unknown. To this end, we determined the role of PDGF-D in breast cancer progression, metastasis, and response to chemotherapy. Experimental Design: We first examined PDGF-D expression in human breast carcinomas by immu-nohistochemical(More)
Antiangiogenic therapy is associated with increased radiographic responses in glioblastomas, but tumors invariably recur. Because tumor-associated macrophages have been shown to mediate escape from antiangiogenic therapy in preclinical models, we examined the role of macrophages in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. We compared autopsy brain specimens(More)
Multiplexed, phenotypic, intravital cytometric imaging requires novel fluorophore conjugates that have an appropriate size for long circulation and diffusion and show virtually no nonspecific binding to cells/serum while binding to cells of interest with high specificity. In addition, these conjugates must be stable and maintain a high quantum yield in the(More)
Malignant tumors escape from host immune surveillance through multiple mechanisms. Of these, abnormal tumor vasculature and hypoxia are critical in establishing an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, and consequently, impeding an active cancer immunotherapy. Thus, we hypothesized that vascular normalization can recondition the tumor immune(More)
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