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Conflicting views exist of how circuits of the antennal lobe, the insect equivalent of the olfactory bulb, translate input from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) into projection-neuron (PN) output. Synaptic connections between ORNs and PNs are one-to-one, yet PNs are more broadly tuned to odors than ORNs. The basis for this difference in receptive range(More)
Daily sleep cycles in humans are driven by a complex circuit within which GABAergic sleep-promoting neurons oppose arousal. Drosophila sleep has recently been shown to be controlled by GABA, which acts on unknown cells expressing the Rdl GABAA receptor. We identify here the relevant Rdl-containing cells as PDF-expressing small and large ventral lateral(More)
The Cd(2+)-inducible metallothionein (MTT1) gene was cloned from Tetrahymena thermophila. Northern blot analysis showed that MTT1 mRNA is not detectable in the absence of Cd(2+), is induced within 10 min of its addition, is expressed in proportion to its concentration, and rapidly disappears upon its withdrawal. Similarly, when the neo1 gene coding region(More)
The neural circuits that regulate sleep and arousal as well as their integration with circadian circuits remain unclear, especially in Drosophila. This issue intersects with that of photoreception, because light is both an arousal signal in diurnal animals and an entraining signal for the circadian clock. To identify neurons and circuits relevant to(More)
The gene (GTU1) encoding Tetrahymena thermophila gamma-tubulin was cloned and analyzed. GTU1 is a single-copy, essential gene encoding a conventional gamma-tubulin. HA-tagged GTU1p localizes to four microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in vegetative cells: basal bodies (BBs), macronuclear envelopes, micronuclear envelopes, and contractile vacuole pores.(More)
Drosophila melanogaster flies concentrate behavioral activity around dawn and dusk. This organization of daily activity is controlled by central circadian clock neurons, including the lateral-ventral pacemaker neurons (LN(v)s) that secrete the neuropeptide PDF (pigment dispersing factor). Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for PDF signaling(More)
To compare circadian gene expression within highly discrete neuronal populations, we separately purified and characterized two adjacent but distinct groups of Drosophila adult circadian neurons: the 8 small and 10 large PDF-expressing ventral lateral neurons (s-LNvs and l-LNvs, respectively). The s-LNvs are the principal circadian pacemaker cells, whereas(More)
Circadian systems are entrained and phase shifted by light. In Drosophila, the model of light-mediated phase shifting begins with photon capture by CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) followed by rapid TIMELESS (TIM) degradation. In this study, we focused on phase delays and assayed TIM degradation within individual brain clock neurons in response to light pulses in the(More)
How animals maintain proper amounts of sleep yet remain flexible to changes in environmental conditions remains unknown. We found that environmental light suppressed the wake-promoting effects of dopamine in fly brains. The ten large lateral-ventral neurons (l-LNvs), a subset of clock neurons, are wake-promoting and respond to dopamine, octopamine and(More)
To advance the understanding of sleep regulation, we screened for sleep-promoting cells and identified neurons expressing neuropeptide Y-like short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Sleep induction by sNPF meets all relevant criteria. Rebound sleep following sleep deprivation is reduced by activation of sNPF neurons, and flies experience negative sleep rebound upon(More)