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Celsr3 and Fzd3, members of "core planar cell polarity" (PCP) genes, were shown previously to control forebrain axon guidance and wiring by acting in axons and/or guidepost cells. Here, we show that Celsr2 acts redundantly with Celsr3, and that their combined mutation mimics that of Fzd3. The phenotypes generated upon inactivation of Fzd3 in different(More)
Celsr3 and Fzd3 regulate the development of reciprocal thalamocortical projections independently of their expression in cortical or thalamic neurons. To understand this cell non autonomous mechanism further, we tested whether Celsr3 and Fzd3 could act via Isl1-positive guidepost cells. Isl1-positive cells appear in the forebrain at embryonic day (E)(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of silencing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the radiosensitivity of the PC3 cell line. METHODS The expression of HIF-1α in PC3, a p53-null and androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line, was knocked down by siRNA. Irradiation was performed at 48 hours after(More)
A scattering-free broadband (approximately 120 nm bandwidth) circular polarizer is demonstrated by stacking three chiral polymer films with different pitch lengths. Using 4 x 4 matrix method, we have theoretically simulated the transmission spectra of each chiral polymer film and the three stacked films. Simulation results agree well with experiment. A(More)
We have investigated the physical and optical properties of the left-handed chiral dopant ZLI-811 mixed in a nematic liquid crystal (LC) host BL006. The solubility of ZLI-811 in BL006 at room temperature is ~24 wt%, but can be enhanced by increasing the temperature. Consequently, the photonic band gap of the cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) mixed with more(More)
Low threshold laser action of dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) is demonstrated using an input circularly polarized light whose handedness is the same as the cholesteric helix of the sample at the high-energy band edge of the reflection band. The mechanism originates from the dramatic increase of the photon density of state at the band edges. We(More)
A scattering-free, polarization controllable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a photo-induced alignment of the dye-doped liquid crystal film. This photo-aligned liquid crystal zone plate provides orthogonal polarization states for odd and even zones. The different focus orders can be separated because of their different polarization states. The(More)
A high performance dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) laser is demonstrated by incorporating a passive CLC reflector to the active cell. The polarization-conserved CLC reflector effectively increases the distributed feedback cavity length which, in turn, results in a significant enhancement in lasing efficiency and a dramatic reduction in beam(More)
Polarization effect of the pulsed pumping laser on the lasing characteristics of the dye-doped right-handed cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) is studied at different incident angles. At a small incident angle (<18 ), the CLC laser performance is independent of the polarization state of the pumping laser. As the incident angle exceeds 18 , the CLC laser(More)
Photoinduced anisotropy in a bacteriorhodopsin film using the pump-probe method was investigated. A diode-pumped second-harmonic YAG laser was used as the pump beam, and three wavelengths, at lambda = 442, 532, 655 nm, from different lasers were used as probe beams. Without the pump beam, the probe light cannot transmit the analyzer to the detector.(More)