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Celsr3 and Fzd3, members of "core planar cell polarity" (PCP) genes, were shown previously to control forebrain axon guidance and wiring by acting in axons and/or guidepost cells. Here, we show that Celsr2 acts redundantly with Celsr3, and that their combined mutation mimics that of Fzd3. The phenotypes generated upon inactivation of Fzd3 in different(More)
Starting with the indole-based C-3 pyridone lead HCV polymerase inhibitor 2, extensive SAR studies were performed at different positions of the indole core. The best C-5 groups were found to be compact and nonpolar moieties and that the C-6 attachments were not affecting potency. Limited N-1 benzyl-type substituent studies indicated that the best(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Currently the only therapeutic regimens are subcutaneous interferon-alpha or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon-alpha alone or in combination with oral ribavirin. Although(More)
In the search for a second generation HCV protease inhibitor, molecular modeling studies of the X-ray crystal structure of Boceprevir1 bound to the NS3 protein suggest that expansion into the S4 pocket could provide additional hydrophobic Van der Waals interactions. Effective replacement of the P4 tert-butyl with a cyclohexylmethyl ligand led to inhibitor 2(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of silencing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the radiosensitivity of the PC3 cell line. METHODS The expression of HIF-1α in PC3, a p53-null and androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line, was knocked down by siRNA. Irradiation was performed at 48 hours after(More)
Starting from indole-based C-3 pyridone HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor 2, structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigations of the indole N-1 benzyl moiety were performed. This study led to the discovery of irreversible inhibitors with p-fluoro-sulfone- or p-fluoro-nitro-substituted N-1 benzyl groups which achieved breakthrough replicon assay potency(More)
SAR development of indole-based palm site inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase exemplified by initial indole lead 1 (NS5B IC(50)=0.9 μM, replicon EC(50)>100 μM) is described. Structure-based drug design led to the incorporation of novel heterocyclic moieties at the indole C3-position which formed a bidentate interaction with the protein backbone. SAR(More)
The discovery of lead compound 2e was described. Its covalent binding to HCV NS5B polymerase enzyme was investigated by X-ray analysis. The results of distribution, metabolism and pharmacokinetics were reported. Compound 2e was demonstrated to be potent (replicon GT-1b EC50 = 0.003 μM), highly selective, and safe in in vitro and in vivo assays.
HCV infections are the leading causes for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation in the United States. Recent advances in drug discovery have identified direct acting antivirals which have significantly improved cure rates in patients. Current efforts are directed towards identification of novel direct acting antiviral targeting different(More)
Boceprevir (SCH 503034), 1, a novel HCV NS3 serine protease inhibitor discovered in our laboratories, is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials. Detailed investigations toward a second generation protease inhibitor culminated in the discovery of narlaprevir (SCH 900518), 37, with improved potency (∼10-fold over 1), pharmacokinetic profile and(More)