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The kinase pathway comprising RAS, RAF, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) is activated in most human tumours, often through gain-of-function mutations of RAS and RAF family members. Using small-molecule inhibitors of MEK and an integrated genetic and pharmacologic analysis, we find that mutation of(More)
Peptide deformylase activity was thought to be limited to ribosomal protein synthesis in prokaryotes, where new peptides are initiated with an N-formylated methionine. We describe here a new human peptide deformylase (Homo sapiens PDF, or HsPDF) that is localized to the mitochondria. HsPDF is capable of removing formyl groups from N-terminal methionines of(More)
The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has a critical role in malignant transformation. Whereas its ability to maintain the functional conformations of mutant and aberrant oncoproteins is established, a transformation-specific regulation of the antiapoptotic phenotype by Hsp90 is poorly understood. By using selective compounds, we have discovered that small-cell(More)
PURPOSE Gefitinib is an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Continuous inhibition of EGFR signaling is thought necessary for optimal inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. We hypothesized that continuous gefitinib may antagonize the effects of cytotoxics that inhibit tumor cells in other phases of the cell cycle.(More)
Hsp90 is a chaperone protein that allows cancer cells to tolerate the many components of dysregulated pathways. Its inactivation may result in targeting multiple molecular alterations and, thus, in reverting the transformed phenotype. The PU-class, a purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor series, has been reported to be potent and selective against Hsp90 both in(More)
PURPOSE Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor currently under development by the National Cancer Institute both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy. There have been numerous reports that flavopiridol potently enhances the induction of apoptosis by chemotherapy. However, the effect of flavopiridol on radiotherapy (RT)-induced(More)
PDX (10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin) is a novel anti-folate with improved membrane transport and polyglutamylation in tumor cells. In prior studies, PDX exhibited enhanced efficacy over methotrexate (MTX) in lung and breast carcinoma xenografts. Because MTX is active in the treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we compared the efficacy of(More)
Treatment of the human colon cancer cells Hct116 with SN-38 (an active metabolite of CPT-11) resulted in G2 cell cycle arrest without induction of apoptosis. However, subsequent treatment of SN-38-treated Hct116 cells with flavopiridol induced apoptosis. One of the genes markedly up-regulated during cell cycle arrest by SN-38 and suppressed during apoptosis(More)
Three unique variants of the CWR22 human prostate cancer xenograft model (CWR22LD1, LD2, and LD3) with a decrease in dependence on androgens were selected under noncastrate conditions, i.e., by outgrowth after transplantation into male NCR (AT) nu mice without testosterone supplementation. These variants were unable to grow in castrated male mice. For(More)
CPT-11, a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, has demonstrated clinical activity in colorectal cancer. Flavopiridol, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is rapidly emerging as a chemotherapy modulator. To enhance the therapeutic index of CPT-11 in colon cancer, we studied the combination of these two drugs in relatively resistant human colon cancer cells,(More)