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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is accumulated in lipoproteins, especially high-density lipoprotein (HDL), in plasma. However, it remains uncharacterized how extracellular S1P is produced in the CNS. The treatment of rat astrocytes with retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP, which induce apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis and HDL-like lipoprotein formation,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Because of increased life expectancy, most postmenopausal women today suffer from osteoporosis and atherosclerotic diseases, which are currently considered unrelated diseases. Our study was aimed at analyzing relations between bone mineral density (BMD) and ultrasonographic assessment of carotid wall characteristics. METHODS The(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Intracranial vertebral artery dissection is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke. However, little is known about its natural history and clinical manifestations, and appropriate management protocol has not yet been established. This study was performed to clarify its clinical course and determine the best management protocol. (More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without infection is a well-known phenomenon that accompanies various acute cerebral insults. We sought to determine whether the initial SIRS score was associated with outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS In 103 consecutive patients with SAH, the occurrence of SIRS was(More)
OBJECT Little is understood about the clinical manifestations of basilar artery (BA) dissections, which can present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brainstem compression, or ischemia. In any instance, the prognosis seems poorer than that for vertebral artery (VA) dissection. The authors analyzed clinical presentations and radiological features of BA(More)
OBJECT Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging now permits diagnosis of increasing numbers of small, minimally symptomatic vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Because VS growth patterns over time are very important in refining treatment strategies, these matters were systematically reviewed. METHODS An extensive MEDLINE search was performed to cull studies on VS growth(More)
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a newly identified variant of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). We report three cases of PMA with comparison to seven cases of PA in terms of their clinicopathological features. The three cases occurred at the ages of 2, 36 and 6 years, and their tumors were located in the left basal ganglia, the pineal gland, and the cerebellum,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to aneurysmal rupture is a major cause of cerebrovascular disease-related death. This problem could be eliminated by diagnosis and successful treatment of aneurysms before rupture. Recent developments in high-resolution imaging technology have made screening for unruptured aneurysms possible in the(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors and the most appropriate treatment for patients with ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms in relation to haematoma distribution. Ninety-two patients with ruptured MCA aneurysms, who underwent surgery during the last 11 years from 1986 to 1996, were assigned to one of the three groups(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The frequency and pattern of symptomatic recurrence of spontaneous intracranial arterial dissection (IAD) are unknown. METHODS A follow-up study of 143 patients (85 men, 58 women; mean age, 50.7 [7-83] years) with spontaneous IADs at The University of Tokyo and affiliated hospitals from 1980 to 2000 was conducted. Tissue samples of(More)