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Smad proteins transduce signals for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-related factors. Smad proteins activated by receptors for TGF-beta form complexes with Smad4. These complexes are translocated into the nucleus and regulate ligand-induced gene transcription. 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-responsive gene promoter elements (TREs) are(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta TGF-beta is the prototype for a family of extracellular proteins that affect cell proliferation and tissue differentiation. TGF-beta-related factors, including BMP-2/4, Dpp and activin, act through two types of serine/threonine kinase receptors which can form a heteromeric complex. However, the mechanism of signal(More)
Smad proteins are key intracellular signaling effectors for the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of peptide growth factors. Following receptor-induced activation, Smads move into the nucleus to activate transcription of a select set of target genes. The activity of Smad proteins must be tightly regulated to exert the biological effects of(More)
Smads regulate transcription of defined genes in response to TGF-beta receptor activation, although the mechanisms of Smad-mediated transcription are not well understood. We demonstrate that the TGF-beta-inducible Smad3 uses the tumor suppressor Smad4/DPC4 and CBP/p300 as transcriptional coactivators, which associate with Smad3 in response to TGF-beta. The(More)
The Pax-6 transcription-factor gene, containing a paired domain and a paired-type homeodomain, is conserved in structure and ubiquitously present among Metazoa. It is required for development of the central nervous system, and is mutated in human aniridia, mouse and rat small eye and Drosophila eyeless. We identified the Pax-6 gene of the nematode(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) produced by monocytes are believed to be involved in the migration of these cells through the basement membrane and the ensuing destruction of connective tissue in chronic inflammatory lesions. Because monocytes encounter a variety of cytokines at these sites, we examined the effect of(More)
The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, multi-ethnic province in northwestern China, is one of the most important foci of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the world. Two Echinococcus granulosus genotypes (G1 and G6) are known to infect the intermediate hosts in this area but, to date, the source of the human infection remains unclear. The current study(More)
The genome sequence of the genetically tractable, mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis contains 1,722 protein-coding genes in a single circular chromosome of 1,661,137 bp. Of the protein-coding genes (open reading frames [ORFs]), 44% were assigned a function, 48% were conserved but had unknown or uncertain functions, and 7.5%(More)
In an effort to expand the use of ferrets as models for genetic disease, several experimental parameters that are required for successful genetic manipulation in this species were investigated. Optimum superovulation (19.3 +/- 0.6 oocytes and embryos per female) was achieved after injections of 100 iu equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and 150 iu human(More)