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Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The flowering part of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) (PGF) has been recommended in Unani literature as a remedy for diabetes. We investigated the effect and action mechanism of a(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) plays an essential role in lipid and glucose homeostasis. It is recognized as the receptor of the thiazolidinediones-a synthetic class of anti-diabetic drugs-and is the target of many drug discovery efforts because of its role in disease states, such as type II diabetes mellitus. In this study,(More)
Microglia are cells from non-neuronal lineages that reside in the central nervous system. In zebrafish, early macrophages migrate from the yolk sac to the brain and retina at 26-30 hour post fertilization (hpf) and transform into microglia at 55-60 hpf. The migration of macrophages into the central nervous system requires signaling by macrophage colony(More)
AIMS OF THE STUDY Fatty liver is the most common cause of abnormal liver function tests. We investigated the effect and its underlying mechanism of pomegranate flower (PGF), a traditional antidiabetic medicine, on fatty liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS At the endpoint of treatment of male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with PGF extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. x 6(More)
Myocardial hypertrophy and extended cardiac fibrosis are independent risk factors for congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Before age 50, men are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than age-matched women. In the current studies, we found that cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were significantly more pronounced in males compared with(More)
Myocardial energy and lipid homeostasis is crucial for normal cardiac structure and function. Either shortage of energy or excessive lipid accumulation in the heart leads to cardiac disorders. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARalpha, -beta/delta and -gamma), members of the nuclear receptor transcription factor superfamily, play important(More)
RATIONALE Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively) exert antihypertrophic effects in the heart via their common receptor, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A, which catalyzes the synthesis of cGMP, leading to activation of protein kinase (PK)G. Still, much of the network of molecular mediators via which ANP/BNP-GC-A signaling inhibit cardiac(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we(More)
In many traditional schools of medicine it is claimed that a balanced modulation of several targets can provide a superior therapeutic effect and decrease in side effect profile compared to a single action from a single selective ligand, especially in the treatment of certain chronic and complex diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Diabetes and obesity(More)
The diabetic heart shows increased fibrosis, which impairs cardiac function. Endothelin (ET)-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) interactively regulate fibroblast growth. We have recently demonstrated that Punica granatum flower (PGF), a Unani anti-diabetic medicine, is a dual activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and(More)