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BACKGROUND Computer-generated virtual faces become increasingly realistic including the simulation of emotional expressions. These faces can be used as well-controlled, realistic and dynamic stimuli in emotion research. However, the validity of virtual facial expressions in comparison to natural emotion displays still needs to be shown for the different(More)
The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence(More)
BACKGROUND Although gray matter (GM) abnormalities are frequently observed in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ), the functional consequences of these structural abnormalities are not yet understood. The present study sought to better understand GM abnormalities in SCZ by examining associations between GM and two putative functional SCZ biomarkers: weak(More)
Normal functioning in many realistic complex dynamical systems, such as neural networks, requires coherence and synchronization for collective actions of network components. However, strong synchronization of the whole network is often related to pathological situations. A regime in between enabling both segregation in subsystems and integration as a whole(More)
Studies investigating emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia predominantly presented photographs of facial expressions. Better control and higher flexibility of emotion displays could be afforded by virtual reality (VR). VR allows the manipulation of facial expression and can simulate social interactions in a controlled and yet more naturalistic(More)
This study investigates the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-l alpha (HIF-1α) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and their correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis in NPC patients. The expression of HIF-1α and CAIX proteins was detected by immunohistochemical staining in 129 samples of NPC and(More)
Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in genomic medicine has been driven by low cost, high throughput sequencing and rapid advances in our understanding of the genetic bases of human diseases. Today, the NGS method has dominated sequencing space in genomic research, and quickly entered clinical practice. Because unique features of NGS(More)
In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide(More)
The major structural ingredients of the brain and neural connectomes have been identified in recent years. These are (i) the arrangement of the networks into modules and (ii) the presence of highly connected regions (hubs) forming so-called rich-clubs. It has been speculated that the combination of these features allows the brain to segregate and integrate(More)
The GDNF (Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor)/Ret/Akt signaling pathway is essential to the development of ENS (enteric nervous system) as well as kidney. We previously showed that the HECT-type E3 ligase NEDL2 (Nedd4-like ligase 2) is required for the ENS development by activating GDNF/Ret/Akt. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown.(More)