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Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a(More)
BACKGROUND Many cases of hereditary breast cancer are due to mutations in either the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene. The histopathological changes in these cancers are often characteristic of the mutant gene. We hypothesized that the genes expressed by these two types of tumors are also distinctive, perhaps allowing us to identify cases of hereditary breast cancer(More)
The most common human cancers are malignant neoplasms of the skin. Incidence of cutaneous melanoma is rising especially steeply, with minimal progress in non-surgical treatment of advanced disease. Despite significant effort to identify independent predictors of melanoma outcome, no accepted histopathological, molecular or immunohistochemical marker defines(More)
Gene expression can be quantitatively analyzed by hybridizing fluor-tagged mRNA to targets on a cDNA microarray. Comparison of gene expression levels arising from cohybridized samples is achieved by taking ratios of average expression levels for individual genes. A novel method of image segmentation is provided to identify cDNA target sites and a hypothesis(More)
Expression of Agouti protein is normally limited to the skin where it affects pigmentation, but ubiquitous expression causes obesity. An expressed sequence tag was identified that encodes Agouti-related protein, whose RNA is normally expressed in the hypothalamus and whose levels were increased eightfold in ob/ob mice. Recombinant Agouti-related protein was(More)
The human AIDS viruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) represent cross-species (zoonotic) infections. Although the primate reservoir of HIV-2 has been clearly identified as the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), the origin of HIV-1 remains uncertain. Viruses related to HIV-1 have been isolated from the common chimpanzee (Pan(More)
The therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was evaluated among 15 APL patients at relapse after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induced and chemotherapy maintained complete remission (CR). As2O3 was administered intravenously at the dose of 10 mg/d. Clinical CR was achieved in nine of 10 (90%)(More)
In mammals, the canonical nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway activated in response to infections is based on degradation of IkappaB inhibitors. This pathway depends on the IkappaB kinase (IKK), which contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta. IKKbeta is essential for inducible IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation, whereas(More)
Opioid drugs, such as morphine, and the endogenous opioid peptides, namely the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins, exert a wide spectrum of physiological and behavioral effects, including effects on pain perception, mood, motor control, and autonomic functions. These effects are mediated via membrane-bound receptors, of which the best characterized are(More)