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Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a(More)
BACKGROUND Many cases of hereditary breast cancer are due to mutations in either the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene. The histopathological changes in these cancers are often characteristic of the mutant gene. We hypothesized that the genes expressed by these two types of tumors are also distinctive, perhaps allowing us to identify cases of hereditary breast cancer(More)
Gene expression can be quantitatively analyzed by hybridizing fluor-tagged mRNA to targets on a cDNA microarray. Comparison of gene expression levels arising from cohybridized samples is achieved by taking ratios of average expression levels for individual genes. A novel method of image segmentation is provided to identify cDNA target sites and a hypothesis(More)
The most common human cancers are malignant neoplasms of the skin. Incidence of cutaneous melanoma is rising especially steeply, with minimal progress in non-surgical treatment of advanced disease. Despite significant effort to identify independent predictors of melanoma outcome, no accepted histopathological, molecular or immunohistochemical marker defines(More)
We disrupted the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene by introducing a neo cassette into the IIIc ligand binding exon and by deleting a genomic DNA fragment encoding its transmembrane domain and part of its kinase I domain. A recessive embryonic lethal mutation was obtained. Preimplantation development was normal until the blastocyst(More)
Opioid drugs, such as morphine, and the endogenous opioid peptides, namely the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins, exert a wide spectrum of physiological and behavioral effects, including effects on pain perception, mood, motor control, and autonomic functions. These effects are mediated via membrane-bound receptors, of which the best characterized are(More)
Expression of Agouti protein is normally limited to the skin where it affects pigmentation, but ubiquitous expression causes obesity. An expressed sequence tag was identified that encodes Agouti-related protein, whose RNA is normally expressed in the hypothalamus and whose levels were increased eightfold in ob/ob mice. Recombinant Agouti-related protein was(More)
The human AIDS viruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) represent cross-species (zoonotic) infections. Although the primate reservoir of HIV-2 has been clearly identified as the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), the origin of HIV-1 remains uncertain. Viruses related to HIV-1 have been isolated from the common chimpanzee (Pan(More)
cDNA microarrays are capable of profiling gene expression patterns of tens of thousands of genes in a single experiment. DNA targets, in the form of 3' expressed sequence tags (ESTs), are arrayed onto glass slides (or membranes) and probed with fluorescent- or radioactively-labelled cDNAs. Here, we review technical aspects of cDNA microarrays, including the(More)
The development and progression of cancer and the experimental reversal of tumorigenicity are accompanied by complex changes in patterns of gene expression. Microarrays of cDNA provide a powerful tool for studying these complex phenomena. The tumorigenic properties of a human melanoma cell line, UACC-903, can be suppressed by introduction of a normal human(More)