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Establishment and maintenance of the pluripotent state of ESCs is a key issue in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine, and consequently identification of transcription factors that regulate ESC pluripotency is an important goal. Singh et al. claim that the transcriptional repressor REST is such a regulator and that a 50% reduction of REST in ESCs(More)
Differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells through multipotent neural stem (NS) cells into differentiated neurons is accompanied by wholesale changes in transcriptional programs. One factor that is present at all three stages and a key to neuronal differentiation is the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST/NRSF). Here, we have used a novel(More)
Neural development from blastocysts is strictly controlled by intricate transcriptional programmes that initiate the down-regulation of pluripotent genes, Oct4, Nanog and Rex1 in blastocysts followed by up-regulation of lineage-specific genes as neural development proceeds. Here, we demonstrate that the expression pattern of the transcription factor Rest(More)
Neural induction is the first step in the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system. The emerging consensus of the mechanisms underlying neural induction is the combined influences from inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and activating fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/Erk signaling, which act extrinsically via either autocrine or(More)
The porcine perinatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is a major isoform in foetal skeletal muscles. We report here on its cDNA and genomic isolation, molecular characterisation and expression. Exon 2 and the first 4 bases of exon 3 of the perinatal MyHC gene, both part of the 5′-end untranslated region, showed differential splicing. About 2% of all perinatal(More)
The chicken GnRH receptor (cGnRH-R) differs from all mammalian GnRH-Rs in possessing a cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail. We have previously demonstrated that the cGnRH-R undergoes more rapid agonist-induced internalization than the mammalian GnRH-Rs and requires the carboxyl-terminal tail for this process. To investigate the structural determinants(More)
We developed a model system whereby HP1 can be targeted to pericentric heterochromatin in ES cells lacking Suv(3)9h1/2 histone methyltransferase (HMTase) activities. HP1 so targeted can reconstitute tri-methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (Me(3)K9H3) and tri-methylated lysine 20 of histone H4 (Me(3)K20H4) at pericentric heterochromatin, indicating that HP1(More)
Differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells through multipotent neural stem (NS) cells into differentiated neurons is accompanied by wholesale changes in transcriptional programs. One factor that is present at all three stages and a key to neuronal differentiation is the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST/NRSF). Here, we have used a novel(More)
During embryogenesis, the Activin/Nodal pathway promotes the mesendodermal lineage and inhibits neural fate. The molecular mechanisms underlying this role of the Activin/Nodal pathway are not clear. In this study, we report a role for protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in Activin-mediated early fate decisions during ESC differentiation and show that(More)
This study elucidated the stage-specific roles of FGF2 signaling during neural development using in-vitro human embryonic stem cell-based developmental modeling. We found that the dysregulation of FGF2 signaling prior to the onset of neural induction resulted in the malformation of neural rosettes (a neural tube-like structure), despite cells having(More)