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In this paper, we study the boundary behaviors of compact manifolds with nonnegative scalar curvature and nonempty boundary. Using a general version of Positive Mass Theorem of Schoen-Yau and Witten, we prove the following theorem: For any compact manifold with boundary and nonneg-ative scalar curvature, if it is spin and its boundary can be isometrically(More)
The hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) has been implicated in a variety of physiological functions including the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Two MCH receptors (MCHR1 and MCHR2) have been identified so far. To decipher the functional role of the MCH receptors, we have generated and phenotypically characterized(More)
Oxidative stress causes mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic complications through unknown mechanisms. Cardiolipin (CL) is a key mitochondrial phospholipid required for oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative damage to CL from pathological remodeling is implicated in the etiology of mitochondrial dysfunction commonly associated with diabetes, obesity, and(More)
Oxidative stress causes mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction in age-related diseases through unknown mechanisms. Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid required for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The function of CL is determined by its acyl composition, which is significantly altered by the onset of age-related diseases. Here, we examine a role(More)
Monoacyglycerol acyltransferases (MGATs) and diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze two consecutive steps of enzyme reactions in the synthesis of triacylglycerols (TAGs). The metabolic complexity of TAG synthesis is reflected by the presence of multiple isoforms of MGAT and DGAT enzymes that differ in catalytic properties, subcellular(More)
Exposure to ultraviolet light can cause inflammation, premature skin aging, and cancer. UV irradiation alters the expression of multiple genes that encode functions to repair DNA damage, arrest cell growth, and induce apoptosis. In addition, UV irradiation inhibits protein synthesis, although the mechanism is not known. In this report, we show that UV(More)
PLS3 (phospholipid scramblase-3) is a new member of the family of phospholipid scramblases and transports CL (cardiolipin) from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane. In the present paper we examined whether changing the levels of functional PLS3 in HeLa cells altered de novo CL biosynthesis and its resynthesis. HeLa cells overexpressing PLS3 or(More)
Cardiolipin is a major membrane polyglycerophospholipid that is required for the reconstituted activity of a number of key mitochondrial enzymes involved in energy metabolism. Cardiolipin is subjected to remodeling subsequent to its de novo biosynthesis to attain appropriate acyl composition for its biological functions. Yet, the enzyme(s) involved in the(More)
Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disorder characterized by multiple biochemical defects including transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational abnormalities. Although major progress has been made in elucidation of factors at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, defects at the translational level remain elusive. Mutation of a kinase that(More)