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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
A Novel Cardiolipin-remodeling Pathway Revealed by a Gene Encoding an Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Acyl-CoA:Lysocardiolipin Acyltransferase (ALCAT1) in Mouse*
The identification and characterization of a murine gene that encodes an acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin acyltransferase 1 (ALCAT1) represents the first identified cardiolipIn-remodeling enzyme from any living organism; its identification implies a novel role for the endoplasmic reticulum in cardiolips metabolism.
Targeted disruption of the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 results in hyperphagia and resistance to diet-induced obesity.
MCHR1 is firmly established as a mediator of MCH effects on energy homeostasis and suggest that inactivation of MCHR1 alone is capable to counterbalance obesity induced by a high-fat diet.
Cardiolipin remodeling by ALCAT1 links oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to obesity.
It is shown that ALCAT1, a lyso-CL acyltransferase upregulated by oxidative stress and diet-induced obesity (DIO), catalyzes the synthesis of CL species that are highly sensitive to oxidative damage, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and insulin resistance.
Beyond triglyceride synthesis: the dynamic functional roles of MGAT and DGAT enzymes in energy metabolism.
  • Yuguang Shi, D. Cheng
  • Biology, Medicine
    American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and…
  • 1 July 2009
The recent progress in the phenotypic characterization of mice deficient in MGAT and DGAT enzymes and the development of chemical inhibitors have revealed important roles of these enzymes in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.
Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Mouse Intestinal Acyl-CoA:Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase, MGAT2*
Northern blot analysis indicates that the mouse MGAT2 is most abundantly expressed in the small intestine, suggesting thatMGAT2 may play an important role in dietary fat absorption.
Identification and functional characterization of hCLS1, a human cardiolipin synthase localized in mitochondria.
The identification and characterization of a human cDNA encoding the first mammalian CLS [hCLS1 (human CLS1] is reported, which shares significant homology with the yeast and plant CLS proteins.
Identification and Characterization of a Gene Encoding Human LPGAT1, an Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Lysophosphatidylglycerol Acyltransferase*[boxs]
Northern blot analysis indicated that the human LPGAT1 was widely distributed, suggesting a dynamic functional role of the enzyme in different tissues, and clear preference to long chain saturated fatty acyl-CoAs and oleoyl-CoA as acyl donors, which is consistent with the lipid composition of endogenous PGs identified from different tissues.
Lipid metabolic enzymes: emerging drug targets for the treatment of obesity
The main enzymes that are involved in different stages of lipid metabolism — from digestion and absorption through synthesis and storage to mobilization and oxidation — which might be successfully targeted by new pharmacotherapies are reviewed.
Catalytic properties of MGAT3, a putative triacylgycerol synthases⃞ Published, JLR Papers in Press, December 14, 2006.
The data suggest that MGAT3 functions as a novel triacylglycerol (TAG) synthase that catalyzes efficiently the two consecutive acylation steps in TAG synthesis.