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Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships(More)
Much of the remaining native rangelands in Canada are topographically complex. The flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in rangelands of hummocky terrain has not been adequately studied, leaving a gap in the national GHG sources and sinks budget. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of topography and mowing on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane(More)
A natural grassland in northeastern China dominated by Leymus chinensis (Trin.) was subject to drought treatments to determine the seasonal dynamics in resource partitioning to shoot and storage organs in response to drought. The growing season was divided into six stages according to the phenology of L. chinensis. Plant samples of L. chinensis were(More)
For the formation of three microsatellites which fly in the same orbit and perform three-dimensional solid mapping for terra, this paper proposes an optimizing design method of space circular formation order based on improved generic algorithm and provides an intersatellite direct spread spectrum communication system. The calculating equation of LEO(More)
Close spatial relationships between plant species are often important for defense against herbivory. The associational plant defense may have important implications for plant community structure, species diversity, and species coexistence. An increasing number of studies have focused on associational plant defense against herbivory at the scale of the(More)
The success of a biological invasion relies on the environment and is closely linked to factors such as water and temperature. Invasive plant species display different seed characteristics, including shape. Field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) is a globally widespread invasive species capable of adapting to broad environmental conditions. However, its(More)
This paper considers proposing the mathematical model and simulation mode of inter-satellite channel based on the reliability of inter-satellite communication system. The Monte Carlo method is adopted to develop the spread spectrum communication system of two consumers. In order to reduce the bit errors of inter-satellite communication, both spread spectrum(More)
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