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Obesity is linked to a variety of metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Dysregulated production of fat-derived secretory factors, adipocytokines, is partly responsible for obesity-linked metabolic disorders. However, the mechanistic role of obesity per se to adipocytokine dysregulation has not been fully elucidated. Here, we(More)
Rho GTPase regulates actin cytoskeleton organization and assembly in many cell types, however, its significance in adipose tissue is not well characterized. Here, we demonstrate high RhoA activity in adipose tissues of C57BL/6J mice. To determine the effect of RhoA activation on 3T3-L1 cells, stable cell lines overexpressing G14VRhoA fused to destabilizing(More)
OBJECTIVE White adipose tissue (WAT) of obesity is in the state of inflammation with progressive infiltration by macrophages and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can induce WAT dysfunction, including insulin resistance and adipocytokine dysregulation. Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element(More)
OBJECTIVE Macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation of adipose tissue is causally linked to insulin resistance in obesity. The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A (CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) on glucose metabolism have been suggested, but the effects of these agents on adipose tissue inflammation are unclear. The aim of(More)
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and a mild chronic inflammation in adipose tissues. Recent studies suggested that GM3 ganglioside mediates dysfunction in insulin signaling. However, it has not been determined the ganglioside profiling in adipose tissues of obese animals. Here, we for the first time examined semi-quantitative ganglioside(More)
Adiponectin is exclusively expressed in adipose tissues and exhibits protective effects against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It enhances AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) signaling in the liver and skeletal muscles, however, its signaling pathways in macrophages remain to be elucidated. Here, we(More)
CK2 is a ubiquitous and essential protein kinase with pleiotropic substrates and function, but it remains unclear how, when, and where CK2 activity is regulated in cells. Hsp90 is a major molecular chaperone that is required for the folding and function of its client proteins. A complex containing Hsp90 and its client protein includes co-chaperones such as(More)
Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causal role in atherosclerosis, microvascular complications of diabetes as well as in beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes. PPARgamma agonists not only improve insulin sensitivity but also eliminate oxidative stress. In mouse, catalase, a major antioxidant enzyme, is directly regulated by PPARgamma through two(More)
Adipocyte secretes bioactive proteins called adipocytokines, and biosynthesis of secretory proteins requires molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER chaperones are known to be induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) and growth factors, however, it has not been determined how ER chaperones expression is regulated in(More)