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The functional role of GABAA receptors in inhibition of synaptic transmission between muscle spindle afferents and spinal motoneurons was studied in the isolated spinal cord of bullfrogs. Extracellular recording from the ventral root showed that activation of GABAA receptors by muscimol (primarily a GABAA receptor agonist) at 50 microM produced a 38%(More)
To study the Ca2+ dependency of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release in the bullfrog sympathetic ganglia, a method was developed to fill the preganglionic nerve terminal boutons with membrane-impermeant fura-2. We found that as stimulation frequency increased from 0.5 to 40 Hz, the peak [Ca2+]i ([Ca2+]p) and the rate of rise in [Ca2+]i(More)
Baclofen, a specific GABAB receptor agonist, was used to study the functional role of activation of GABAB receptors in synaptic transmission between muscle spindle afferents and motoneurons in the isolated spinal cord of bullfrogs. (+/-)-Baclofen (5 microM) reversibly reduced the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) evoked by simulation(More)
To determine whether there are anatomical correlates for intraterminal Ca2+ stores to regulate exocytosis of dense-cored vesicles (DCVs) and whether these stores can modulate exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, we studied the spatial distributions of DCVs, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), and mitochondria in 19 serially reconstructed nerve terminals in(More)
The rate and the total amount of Ca2+ elevation in the presynaptic terminals of bullfrog sympathetic ganglia depend on the firing frequency of the terminals. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a mitochondrial uncoupler, was used for testing whether mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is one of the mechanisms that underlie this frequency dependence.(More)
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential in the protection from organ-specific autoimmune diseases. In the pancreas, they inhibit actions of autoreactive T cells and thereby prevent diabetes progression. The signals that control the generation, the maintenance, or the expansion of regulatory T cell pool in vivo remain poorly understood. Here we show that(More)
Effects of different patterns of presynaptic stimulation upon release of leuteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) were studied by monitoring LHRH-induced slow currents from individual postsynaptic neurons in bullfrog sympathetic ganglia. LHRH-mediated synaptic currents in ganglionic B and C neurons were recorded by a single-electrode voltage-clamp(More)
ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel openers have been shown to be a potential class of therapeutic agents for the control of cardiovascular diseases, including angina, arrhythmias, and hypertension. In this study, the pharmacological activity of 6-cyano-3S,4R-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-3-hydroxy-4-[5S-(1-hydroxymethyl)-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl] -1-benzopyran(More)
1 OBJECTIVE—Transforming growth factor-␤ (TGF-␤) can exhibit strong immune suppression but has also been shown to promote T-cell growth. We investigated the differential effect of this cytokine on CD8 ϩ T-cells in autoimmunity and antiviral immunity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We used mouse models for virally induced type 1 diabetes in conjunction with(More)
Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone(More)