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Prostatic development is induced by androgens acting via mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. Androgens elicit their morphogenetic effects by acting through androgen receptors (ARs) in urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), which induces prostatic epithelial development. In adulthood reciprocal homeostatic stromal-epithelial interactions maintain functional(More)
The topic of this review is the role of stromal-epithelial interactions in normal and malignant prostatic growth. Because cell-cell interactions and androgens play such key roles in the prostate, the goal of this review will be to apply endocrinologic and developmental concepts to the understanding of normal and malignant prostatic growth. Prostatic(More)
This review on normal and neoplastic growth of the prostate emphasizes the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal/stromal interactions. Accordingly, during prostatic development urogenital sinus mesenchyme (a) specifies prostatic epithelial identity, (b) induces epithelial bud formation, (c) elicits prostatic bud growth and regulates ductal branching, (d)(More)
The ras proto-oncogene has been implicated during the formation of tumors in vivo as well as the transformation of cell lines in culture. Conditional expression of an activated ras mutant in Balb/c-3T3 fibroblasts failed to stimulate S phase entry in the absence of plasma-derived progression factors, but did shorten the G1 interval from 12 to 6 h and(More)
Members of the STAT family of transcriptional regulators modulate the expression of a variety of gene products that promote cell proliferation, survival and transformation. Although initially identified as mediators of cytokine signaling, the STAT proteins are also activated by, and thus may contribute to the actions of, polypeptide growth factors. To(More)
Androgen receptor splicing variants (ARVs) that lack the ligand-binding domain (LBD) are associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including resistance to the new generation of high-affinity anti-androgens. However, the mechanism by which ARV expression is regulated is not fully understood. In this study, we show that(More)
Studies were conducted to elucidate the importance of androgen-mediated induction of the extreme masculinization of the external genitalia in female spotted hyenas. Phallic size and shape; androgen receptor (AR) and alpha-actin expression; and sex-specific differences in phallic retractor musculature, erectile tissue, tunica albuginea, and(More)
Ischemic postconditioning (IPC) represents one of the most effective cardioprotective strategies against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Depression is commonly present in patients with coronary heart disease. However, whether depression interferes with the cardioprotection of IPC during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and their underlying mechanisms remain(More)
Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is a severe problem associated with various inflammatory diseases. Previous studies have shown that repeated social stress induces GC resistance in innate immune cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine potential underlying molecular(More)
Prostate cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related death in the western world. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for the suppression of androgens binding to the androgen receptor (AR) has been the norm of prostate cancer treatment. Despite early success to suppress prostate tumor growth, ADT eventually fails leading to recurrent tumor growth in a(More)