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Several lines of work have shown that astrocytes release glutamate in response to receptor activation, which results in a modulation of local synaptic activity. Astrocytic glutamate release is Ca(2+)-dependent and occurs in conjunction with exocytosis of glutamate containing vesicles. However, astrocytes contain a millimolar concentration of cytosolic(More)
Rice false smut caused by the fungal pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens is becoming a destructive disease throughout major rice-growing countries. Information about its genetic diversity and population structure is essential for rice breeding and efficient control of the disease. This study compared the genome sequences of two U. virens isolates. Three SNP-rich(More)
Spreading depression (SD), a slow diffusion-mediated self-sustained wave of depolarization that severely disrupts neuronal function, has been implicated as a cause of cellular injury in a number of central nervous system pathologies, including blind spots in the retina. Here we show that in the hypoglycemic chicken retina, spontaneous episodes of SD can(More)
Plants are exposed to numerous potential pathogenic microbes. To counter the threat, plants have evolved diverse patternrecognition receptors (PRRs), which are receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor proteins (RPs) specialized to detect conserved pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs). Although only a handful of RKs and RPs are known PRRs,(More)
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