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In the developing CNS, Notch1 and its ligand, Jagged1, regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation, but their role in repair of demyelinating lesions in diseases such as multiple sclerosis remains unresolved. To address this question, we generated a mouse model in which we targeted Notch1 inactivation to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells(More)
The cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induce interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression in astrocytes. The molecular mechanism(s) by which these cytokines activate IL-6 expression was examined by transient transfection of the human IL-6 promoter linked to the reporter gene CAT (IL-6-CAT) in primary rat(More)
Loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is believed to be an early and significant event in lesion pathogenesis in the inflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS), and understanding mechanisms involved may lead to novel therapeutic avenues for this disorder. Well-differentiated endothelium forms the basis of the BBB, while astrocytes(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and devastating autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. With the increased understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease in the past two decades, many disease-modifying therapies that primarily target adaptive immunity have been shown to prevent exacerbations and new lesions in patients(More)
Mechanisms that regulate oligodendrocyte survival and myelin formation are an intense focus of research into myelin repair in the lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss are pathological hallmarks of the disease, increased oligodendrocyte numbers and remyelination are frequently observed in early lesions, but(More)
Glatiramer acetate (GA) is an immunomodulator approved for therapy of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), but recent findings indicate that it may also have additional, neurotrophic effects. Here, we found that supernatants from human GA-reactive T lymphocytes potentiated oligodendrocyte numbers in rodent and human oligodendrocyte progenitor(More)
We studied the effect of T cells on IL-18 production by human monocytes in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Addition of activated T cells markedly enhanced IL-18 production by monocytes exposed to M. tuberculosis. This effect was mediated by a soluble factor and did not require cell-to-cell contact. The effect of activated T cells was mimicked by(More)
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