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Since Loss (1907) established the genus Eurytrema, there were more than eleven species found worldwide from America, Europe to Asia. Adult worms are generally found in pancreatic and bile ducts of wild and domestic ruminants. Some species from wild animal and domestic animal have already differentiated. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the partial(More)
Group A streptococcus (GAS) strains secrete the protein streptokinase (SK), which functions by activating host human plasminogen (hPg) to plasmin (hPm), thus providing a proteolytic framework for invasive GAS strains. The types of SK secreted by GAS have been grouped into two clusters (SK1 and SK2) and one subcluster (SK2a and SK2b). SKs from cluster 1(More)
Recruitment of the serine protease plasmin is central to the pathogenesis of many bacterial species, including Group A streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. A key process in invasive GAS disease is the ability to accumulate plasmin at the cell surface, however the role of host activators of plasminogen in this process is(More)
BACKGROUND Infection of bacterial Vibrio parahaemolyticus is common in mud crab farms. However, the mechanisms of the crab's response to pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus infection are not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that function as regulators of gene expression and play essential roles in various biological(More)
Hemocyanin (HMC) has been shown to participate in multiple roles of immune defence. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effect and underpinning mechanism of HMC from Litopenaeus vannamei in vitro. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay indicated that HMC could dramatically inhibit the growth of HeLa cells, but not 293T cells under the same(More)
Human IgG is a well-established multifunctional antigen specific immunoglobulin molecule of the adaptive immune system. However, an antigen nonspecific immunological function of human IgG has never been reported. In this study, human IgG was isolated using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation and diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) cellulose 52 ion exchange(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or cancer cells with stem cell properties, are a rare population of tumor bulk and are recognized to be responsible for cancer recurrence, drug resistance, and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms of how to regulate the differentiation and self-renewing of CSCs are poorly understood. Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are(More)
BACKGROUND Mud crab Scylla paramamosain is an economically important marine species in China. However, frequent outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by marine bacteria, such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, result in great economic losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Comparative de novo transcriptome analysis of S. paramamosain infected with V.(More)
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