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To enable strong attachment forces between pad and substrata, a high proximity between contacting surfaces is required. One of the mechanisms, which can provide an intimate contact of solids, is a high flexibility of both materials. It has been previously presumed that setae of hairy attachment pads of insects are composed of flexible cuticle, and are able(More)
Design of attachment devices in insects varies enormously in relation to different functional loads. Many systems, located on different parts of the body, involve surfaces with particular frictional properties. Such systems evolved to attach parts of the body to each other, or to attach an insect to the substratum by providing fast and reversible(More)
Airway inflammation in patients with asthma exposes the airway smooth muscle (ASM) to a variety of spasmogens. These spasmogens increase ASM tone, which can lead to force adaptation. Length oscillations of ASM, which occur in vivo due to breathing maneuvers, can attenuate force adaptation. However, in the presence of tone, the force oscillations required to(More)
The airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer within the airway wall modulates airway diameter and distensibility. Even in the relaxed state, the ASM layer possesses finite stiffness and limits the extent of airway distension by the radial force generated by parenchymal tethers and transmural pressure. Airway stiffness has often been attributed to passive elements,(More)
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