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Natural releasable attachment systems of insect legs, where attachment-detachment performances are often very fast, seem to be optimized to get a maximum of real contact to the substratum. Tarsi of Tettigonia viridissima bear flexible attachment pads with unusual ultrastructural architecture of the cuticle. The indentation of the attachment pads was(More)
To enable strong attachment forces between pad and substrata, a high proximity between contacting surfaces is required. One of the mechanisms, which can provide an intimate contact of solids, is a high flexibility of both materials. It has been previously presumed that setae of hairy attachment pads of insects are composed of flexible cuticle, and are able(More)
Design of attachment devices in insects varies enormously in relation to different functional loads. Many systems, located on different parts of the body, involve surfaces with particular frictional properties. Such systems evolved to attach parts of the body to each other, or to attach an insect to the substratum by providing fast and reversible(More)
The airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer within the airway wall modulates airway diameter and distensibility. Even in the relaxed state, the ASM layer possesses finite stiffness and limits the extent of airway distension by the radial force generated by parenchymal tethers and transmural pressure. Airway stiffness has often been attributed to passive elements,(More)
Airway inflammation in patients with asthma exposes the airway smooth muscle (ASM) to a variety of spasmogens. These spasmogens increase ASM tone, which can lead to force adaptation. Length oscillations of ASM, which occur in vivo due to breathing maneuvers, can attenuate force adaptation. However, in the presence of tone, the force oscillations required to(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Smooth muscle myosin monomers self-assemble in solution to form filaments. Phosphorylation of the 20-kD regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20) enhances filament formation. It is not known whether the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated filaments possess the same structural integrity. METHODS We purified myosin from bovine trachealis(More)
The suitability of three common atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging modes for quantitative height and volume measurements on soft samples was investigated. The height and volume of rehydrated human metaphase chromosomes in liquid were measured using the contact mode, the tapping mode, and the force mapping mode. In both the contact and tapping modes, the(More)
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