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In this work we studied the folding process of the hybrid-1 type human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex with solvent and K(+) ions explicitly modeled. Enabled by the powerful bias-exchange metadynamics and large-scale conventional molecular dynamic simulations, the free energy landscape of this G-DNA was obtained for the first time and four folding intermediates(More)
Tension at the surface is a most fundamental physicochemical property of a liquid surface. The concept of surface tension has widespread implications in numerous natural, engineering and biomedical processes. Research to date has been largely focused on the liquid side; little attention has been paid to the vapor--the other side of the surface, despite over(More)
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