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Although auxin is known to regulate many processes in plant development and has been studied for over a century, the mechanisms whereby plants produce it have remained elusive. Here we report the characterization of a dominant Arabidopsis mutant, yucca, which contains elevated levels of free auxin. YUCCA encodes a flavin monooxygenase-like enzyme and(More)
Inflammasomes are large cytoplasmic complexes that sense microbial infections/danger molecules and induce caspase-1 activation-dependent cytokine production and macrophage inflammatory death. The inflammasome assembled by the NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein NLRC4 responds to bacterial flagellin and a conserved type III secretion system (TTSS) rod component.(More)
Problems associated with large-scale pattern growth of graphene constitute one of the main obstacles to using this material in device applications. Recently, macroscopic-scale graphene films were prepared by two-dimensional assembly of graphene sheets chemically derived from graphite crystals and graphene oxides. However, the sheet resistance of these films(More)
Determining the specificity of transcription factors (TFs) is an important step in understanding regulatory networks and the effects of genetic variations on those networks. In recent years several high-throughput approaches have been developed to rapidly and efficiently determine the specificity of TFs 1. One important issue that arises in the analysis of(More)
Genomic analyses often involve scanning for potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites using models of the sequence specificity of DNA binding proteins. Many approaches have been developed to model and learn a protein's DNA-binding specificity, but these methods have not been systematically compared. Here we applied 26 such approaches to in vitro(More)
Transcriptional activators, several different coactivators, and general transcription factors are necessary to access specific loci in the dense chromatin structure to allow precise initiation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes were implicated in loosening the chromatin around promoters and thus in gene(More)
This paper presents Yinyang K-means, a new algorithm for K-means clustering. By clustering the centers in the initial stage, and lever-aging efficiently maintained lower and upper bounds between a point and centers, it more effectively avoids unnecessary distance calculations than prior algorithms. It significantly out-performs prior K-means algorithms(More)
We employ a biophysical model that accounts for the non-linear relationship between binding energy and the statistics of selected binding sites. The model includes the chemical potential of the transcription factor, non-specific binding affinity of the protein for DNA, as well as sequence-specific parameters that may include non-independent contributions of(More)
Cul3, a Cullin family scaffold protein, is thought to mediate the assembly of a large number of SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein)-like ubiquitin ligase complexes through BTB domain substrate-recruiting adaptors. Cul3 controls early embryonic development in several genetic models through mechanisms not understood. Very few functional substrate/adaptor pairs(More)