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—Emerging non-volatile memories (NVM) based on re-sistive switching mechanism (RS) such as STT-MRAM, OxRRAM and CBRAM etc., are under intense R&D investigation by both academics and industries. They provide high write/read speed, low power and good endurance (e.g.,) beyond mainstream NVMs, which allow them to be embedded directly with logic units for(More)
Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM (STT-MRAM) promises low power, great miniaturization prospective (e.g. 22 nm) and easy integration with CMOS process. It becomes actually a strong non-volatile memory candidate for both embedded and standalone applications. However STT-MRAM suffers from important failure and reliability issues compared with the conventional(More)
As the technolody node shrinks down to 90nm and below, high standby power becomes one of the major critical issues for CMOS highspeed computing circuits (e.g. logic and cache memory) due to the high leakage currents. A number of non-volatile storage technologies, such as FRAM, MRAM, PCRAM and RRAM, are under investigation to bring the non-volatility into(More)
—As the fabrication technology node shrinks down to 90nm or below, high standby power becomes one of the major critical issues for CMOS high-speed computing circuits (e.g. logic and cache memory) due to the high leakage currents. A number of non-volatile storage technologies such as FeRAM, MRAM, PCRAM and RRAM and so on, are under investigation to bring the(More)
Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) possesses various merits, such as non-volatility, low power and high speed. It has been considered as a promising non-volatile memory candidate used universally in logic computing, cache and storage applications. However it suffers from serious reliability issues compared with conventional(More)
Conventional MOS integrated circuits and systems suffer serve power and scalability challenges as technology nodes scale into ultra-deep-micron technology nodes (e.g., below 40nm). Both static and dynamic power dissipations are increasing, caused mainly by the intrinsic leakage currents and large data traffic. Alternative approaches beyond charge-only-based(More)
Conventional CMOS integrated circuits suffer from serve power and scalability challenges as technology node scales into ultra-deep-micron technology nodes. Alternative approaches beyond charge-only based circuits. In particular, spin-based devices or integrated circuits show promising merits to overcome these issues by adding the spin freedom of electrons(More)