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BACKGROUND/AIMS Apoptosis and autophagy are two patterns of programmed cell death which play important roles in the intervertebral disc degeneration. Oxidative stress is an important factor for the induction of programmed cell death. However, the cellular reactions linking autophagy to apoptosis of disc cells under oxidative stress have never been(More)
Estradiol could protect osteoblast against apoptosis, and apoptosis and autophagy were extensively and intimately connected. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that autophagy was present in osteoblasts under serum deprivation and estrogen protected against osteoblast apoptosis via promotion of autophagy. MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells were(More)
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is the largest avascular structure in the body, and IVD cells reside in vivo in an environment that is considered to be hypoxic. However, the role of oxygen in IVD cell biology remains an issue of debate. By reviewing the available literature about the effect of oxygen tension on regulating the phenotype, energy metabolism,(More)
Oxidative stress can damage various cellular components of osteoblasts, and is regarded as a pivotal pathogenic factor for bone loss. Increasing evidence indicates a significant role of cell autophagy in response to oxidative stress. However, the role of autophagy in the osteoblasts under oxidative stress remains to be clarified. In this study, we verified(More)
Age-related bone loss is a major cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of age-related bone loss is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to clarify whether autophagy in osteocytes was involved in age-related bone loss. Male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats in 3, 9, and 24 month old(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a substance P (SP) receptor (NK1 receptor [NK1-R]) antagonist on hyperalgesia and bone metabolism in ovariectomized mice. METHODS Thirty-six 9-week-old mice were subjected to either bilateral ovariectomy or sham surgery. Three weeks after the operation, the mice were treated with either a(More)
INTRODUCTION Proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) and third-generation Gamma nail (Gamma 3) are widely used in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. However, it remains unclear which device achieves better clinical and radiographic outcomes when treating intertrochanteric fractures. METHODS This study comprised 239 patients with(More)
R-spondin proteins are identified as secreted agonists of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptors (LGR) are recognized as R-spondin receptors. The potential role of R-spondin 2 (Rspo2) and LGR4 in mediating osteogenesis remains poorly understood. In our in vitro experiments, we found that(More)
Autophagy and apoptosis are important in maintaining the metabolic homeostasis of intervertebral disc cells, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is able to delay intervertebral disc degeneration. This study determined the effect of TGF-β1 on the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in the disc cells, with the aim to provide molecular mechanism(More)
Smad-7 inhibited the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-induced proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes and completely antagonized the effect of TGF-β on the proliferation of the cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Smad-7 to the pathophysiology of disc degeneration by determining the expression of Smad-7 in the degenerative(More)