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Loss of neurons after brain injury and in neurodegenerative disease is often accompanied by reactive gliosis and scarring, which are difficult to reverse with existing treatment approaches. Here, we show that reactive glial cells in the cortex of stab-injured or Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice can be directly reprogrammed into functional neurons in vivo(More)
Hearing loss often triggers an inescapable buzz (tinnitus) and causes everyday sounds to become intolerably loud (hyperacusis), but exactly where and how this occurs in the brain is unknown. To identify the neural substrate for these debilitating disorders, we induced both tinnitus and hyperacusis with an ototoxic drug (salicylate) and used behavioral,(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. The resultant mutant HTT protein (mHTT) forms aggregates in various types of cells, including neurons and glial cells and preferentially affects brain function. We found that two HD mouse models (Hdh(150Q) and R6/2) were more susceptible than(More)
To explore the disrupted thalamic functional connectivity and its relationships with cognitive dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A total of 38 T2DM patients and 39 well-matched healthy controls participated in the resting-state fMRI and T1-weighted imaging scans. The thalamic(More)
OBJECTIVE Subjective tinnitus is hypothesized to arise from aberrant neural activity; however, its neural bases are poorly understood. To identify aberrant neural networks involved in chronic tinnitus, we compared the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) patterns of tinnitus patients and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
Focal adhesions (FAs) undergo maturation that culminates in size and composition changes that modulate adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling and differentiation. Although it is well recognized that stimuli for osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) drive FA maturation, actin organization and stress fiber polarization, the extent to which FA-mediated(More)
OBJECTIVE The neural mechanisms that give rise to the phantom sound of tinnitus are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate whether aberrant spontaneous brain activity exists in chronic tinnitus patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 31 patients with chronic tinnitus(More)
BACKGROUND The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular risk associated with obesity. The mechanism(s) by which leptin affects vascular disease is unclear, although leptin has been shown to increase sympathetic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin treatment on endothelial(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder that is induced by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in exon 1 of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. We previously reported that the abnormal activation of an important energy sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPK-α1), occurs in the brains of mice and patients with HD, which suggests that(More)
Purpose. Recent studies suggest that tinnitus may be due in part to aberrant callosal structure and interhemispheric interaction. To explore this hypothesis we use a novel method, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), to examine the resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity and its relationships with clinical characteristics in chronic(More)