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Bioaugmentation using microbial consortia is helpful in some anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, but accelerated acidification to produce methane has not been performed effectively with corn stalks and cow dung. In this study, the thermophilic microbial consortia MC1 was inoculated into a complex open environment (unsterilized and sterilized systems) to(More)
—We introduce the Membership Degree Min-Max (MD-Min-Max) localization algorithm as a precise and simple lateration algorithm for indoor localization. MD-Min-Max is based on the well known Min-Max algorithm that uses a bounding box to compute the position. We present an analysis of the Min-Max algorithm and show strengths and weaknesses in the spatial(More)
Nowadays positioning and navigation technologies based on smartphone are sprouting up for numerous application scenarios. In this paper a more self-contained approach is introduced by which merely inertial units within the smartphone are utilized. By the Pedestrian Dead Reckoning technique, all kinds of indoor location information are provided at users'(More)
The main challenge of indoor wireless positioning is the large positive bias of non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ranging, which directly degrades the localization accuracy. It is necessary for a practical positioning algorithm to learn the specific of indoor ranging from statistics. Thus, we analyze the ranging characteristics based on real-world indoor experiments(More)
It is hard to obtain a general error model for range-based wireless indoor target tracking system due to the complicated hybrid LOS/NLOS environment. In this paper, we employ a dynamic Gaussian model (DGM) to describe the indoor ranging error. A general Gaussian distribution is constructed firstly. The instantaneous LOS or NLOS error at a typical time is(More)