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Owing to sparseness, directly clustering high-dimensional data is still a challenge problem. Therefore, obtaining their low-dimensional compact representation by dimensional reduction is an effective method for clustering high-dimensional data. Most of existing dimensionality reduction methods, however, are developed originally for classification (such as(More)
Fair mobile payment protocols ensure that both participants can engage in the exchange without the risk of suffering a disadvantage (e.g., losing their money without receiving anything for it). In general, fair payment protocols require the continuous availability of an external trusted third party (FTP), a dedicated site which is trusted by both(More)