Yuanyuan Zha

Learn More
Tumor escape from immune-mediated destruction has been associated with immunosuppressive mechanisms that inhibit T cell activation. Although evidence for an active immune response, including infiltration with CD8(+) T cells, can be found in a subset of patients, those tumors are nonetheless not immunologically rejected. In the current report, we show that(More)
Despite the frequent detection of circulating tumor antigen-specific T cells, either spontaneously or following active immunization or adoptive transfer, immune-mediated cancer regression occurs only in the minority of patients. One theoretical rate-limiting step is whether effector T cells successfully migrate into metastatic tumor sites. Affymetrix gene(More)
T cell anergy has been correlated with defective signaling by the GTPase Ras, but causal and mechanistic data linking defective Ras activity with T cell anergy are lacking. Here we used adenoviral transduction to genetically manipulate nonproliferating T cells and show that active Ras restored interleukin 2 production and mitogen-activated protein kinase(More)
T cell anergy is one of the mechanisms contributing to peripheral tolerance, particularly in the context of progressively growing tumors and in tolerogenic treatments promoting allograft acceptance. We recently reported that early growth response gene 2 (Egr2) is a critical transcription factor for the induction of anergy in vitro and in vivo, which was(More)
For tumor antigen-specific T cells to effectively control the growth of cancer cells in vivo, they must gain access to, and function within, the tumor microenvironment. While tumor antigen-based vaccines and T cell adoptive transfer strategies can result in clinical benefit in a subset of patients, most of the patients do not respond clinically. Even for(More)
The activation of T cells is tightly controlled by many positive and negative regulatory processes. This fine-tuning allows productive immunity to pathogens while minimizing the risk of autoimmunity. One negative regulatory mechanism is clonal anergy, which is a hyporesponsive state that occurs when T cells are activated through the T-cell antigen receptor(More)
Melanoma metastases can be categorized by gene expression for the presence of a T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment, which correlates with clinical efficacy of immunotherapies. T cells frequently recognize mutational antigens corresponding to nonsynonymous somatic mutations (NSSMs), and in some cases shared differentiation or cancer-testis antigens.(More)
The ether-lipid 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH3) has anticancer activity, but systemic toxicity has restricted its therapeutic use. In this report "free" ET-18-OCH3 and a stable, well-characterized, liposome-based formulation of ET-18-OCH3 (ELL-12) were compared for in vivo toxicity in normal mice and for therapeutic(More)
PURPOSE Sirolimus is the eponymous inhibitor of the mTOR; however, only its analogs have been approved as cancer therapies. Nevertheless, sirolimus is readily available, has been well studied in organ transplant patients, and shows efficacy in several preclinical cancer models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Three simultaneously conducted phase I studies in advanced(More)
Because the therapeutic use of the antitumor ether lipid 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (ET-18-OCH3) is restricted by its hemolytic activity we explored the use of lipid packing parameters to reduce this toxicity by creating structurally optimized ET-18-OCH3 liposomes. We postulated that combination of ET-18-OCH3, which is similar(More)